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Jazz. Created by Alexandria Powell. History of Jazz.

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  1. Jazz

    Created by Alexandria Powell
  2. History of Jazz The history of jazz began around 1895 in New Orleans. New Orleans had a great tradition of celebration. Opera, military marching bands, folk music, the blues, different types of church music, ragtime, echoes of traditional African drumming, and all of the dance styles that went with this music could be heard and seen throughout the city. When all of these kinds of music blended into one, jazz was born. Jazz has been called the purest expression of American democracy; a music built on individualism, and compromise, independence and cooperation.
  3. History of Jazz (cont.) Chicago became the focal pint for jazz in the early 1920’s when New Orleans musicians found their way north after clubs in the Storyville area of New Orleans were closed. Jazz began to gain wider notice as recordings made in the Windy city sold throughout America. New York City contributed to the richness of jazz in many ways. The first piano style to be incorporated into jazz was stride which developed from ragtime and was popular in New York. The city was also the center of the music publishing business. In the 1920’s, New York City had two pioneering orchestras that would eventually greatly affect jazz history. Fletcher Henderson put together a band that first appeared at the Cotton Club in New York in 1923. Cities like St. Louis, Memphis, and Detroit also had burgeoning jazz scenes.
  4. Types of Jazz DixieLand Swing Bebop Cool jazz
  5. Blues and ragtime, along with a rich local brass band tradition and many other influences, came together from 1917 to 1923 in New Orleans, Louisiana to create a new type of music called Dixieland jazz. Dixieland is also known as traditional jazz or New Orleans jazz. As jazz gained in popularity, it spread north from New Orleans to Chicago, New York, Kansas City, and across the Midwest to California. The name "Dixieland" was most likely derived from the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, a New Orleans group who made the first publicly available recording of this style of music in 1917. The recording was very popular and the band gained international prominence as a result. Common instruments in a Dixieland jazz-style group included trumpet-cornet, clarinet, trombone, and occasionally the saxophone. The rhythm section could include the banjo, piano, drums, string bass, or tuba. Dixieland was usually performed without a vocalist. The music was characterized by a steady, often upbeat, tempo, 4/4 meter, and rhythms performed in an exaggerated triplet swing style.
  6. Frequently the tuba or string bass plays on the first and third beats of each measure, with the banjo or piano playing chords on beats two and four. This is known as "two-beat" style, and gives the music a sound similar to ragtime. The other instruments of the ensemble play melodies and countermelodies simultaneously and take turns playing solos. Musicians often play familiar melodies from memory adding their own bluesy inflections throughout the song. Dixieland jazz greats included trumpeter Louis Armstrong, pianist Jelly Roll Morton, trumpeter Bix Beiderbecke, trombonist Edward "Kid" Ory, clarinetist Sidney Bechet, and bandleader and trumpeter King Oliver.
  7. Swing is the jazz style that emerged during the early 1930s and emphasized big bands. It spilled into the late 1940s and then remained popular in recordings, film, and television music long after its main proponents had disbanded. Most swing-style groups had at least 10 musicians and featured at least three or four saxophones, two or three trumpets, two or three trombones, piano, guitar, bass violin, and drums. Guitarists, bassists and drummers offered repeating rhythms that were sufficiently simple, buoyant, and lilting to inspire social dancers, the style's largest audience. Musicians strove for large, rich tone qualities on their instruments. Solo improvisers did not seek intricacy in their lines so much as lyricism and a hot, confident feeling that was rhythmically compelling. For these reasons, the musical period of the 1930s and 1940s has been called the swing era and big-band era. Not all dance music played by big bands of the 1930s and 1940s was jazz. A large segment of the public, however considered almost any lively, syncopated popular music to be jazz.
  8. Bebop emerged in the 1940s a as a style of jazz in great contrast to the music of the big bands. The bebop era represents for many the most significant period in jazz history; several consider it the time when musicians began stressing artistic rather than commercial concerns, put innovation ahead of convention, and looked toward the future instead of paying homage to the past. It featured a small group of musicians -- four to six players -- rather than the 10 or more associated with the big bands. The smaller size allowed more solo opportunities for the players. The music itself was characterized by more complex melodies and chord progressions, as well as more emphasis on the role the rhythm section. Furthermore, phrases within the music were often irregular in length, making bebop interesting to listen to, but in contrast to music of the big bands, unsuitable for dancing. The development of bebop is attributed in large part to trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and alto saxophonist Charlie Parker. The unique styles of Gillespie and Parker contributed to and typified the bebop sound. They experimented with unconventional chromaticism, discordant sounds, and placement of accents in melodies. In contrast to the regular phrasing of big band music, Gillespie and Parker often created irregular phrases of odd length, and combined swing and straight eighth-note rhythms within the swing style.
  9. Cool Jazz Cool jazz developed during the late 1940's at approximately the same time as bebop, and remained popular for several decades. Cool jazz was more subtle, moody, muted, and restrained than bebop, and may have been influenced by the harmonies of 20th-century art music composers like Stravinsky and Debussy. Two of the most important contributors to the cool jazz style were trumpeter Miles Davis and pianist, bandleader, and composer-arranger Gil Evans.
  10. Influences of Jazz Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Billie Holiday Miles Davis Cab Calloway
  11. Louis Armstrong Louis Daniel Armstrong was born on August 4 1901. He was born into a very poor family in New Orleans, Louisiana. Armstrong was a charismatic, innovative performer whose musical skills and bright personality transformed jazz from a rough regional dance music into a popular art form. Armstrong's playing is filled with joyous, inspired original melodies, creative leaps, and subtle relaxed or driving rhythms. The "Satchmo" nickname and Armstrong's warm Southern personality, combined with his natural love of entertaining and ability to evoke a response from the audience, resulted in a public persona — the grin, the sweat, the handkerchief — that came to seem affected and even something of a racist caricature late in his career. Armstrong almost single-handedly created the role of the jazz soloist, taking what was essentially a collective folk music and turning it into an art form with tremendous possibilities for individual expression.
  12. Armstrong had many hit records including "Stardust", "What a Wonderful World", "When The Saints Go Marching In", "Dream a Little Dream of Me", "Ain'tMisbehavin", and "Stompin' at the Savoy". "We Have All the Time in the World“ .With his innovations, he raised the bar musically for all who came after him. He had an extremely distinctive gravelly voice, which he deployed with great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes. During his long career he played and sang with the most important instrumentalists and vocalists; among the many, singing brakeman Jimmie Rodgers, Bing Crosby, Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, Bessie Smith, and notably with Ella Fitzgerald. Armstrong died of a heart attack on July 6, 1971, at age 69, the night after playing a famous show at the Waldorf Astoria's Empire Room.
  13. Duke Ellington Duke Ellington was born on April 29 in 1899 in Lincolnton, North Carolina. Ellington's long-term aim became to extend the jazz form from the three-minute limit of the 78 rpm record side, of which he was an acknowledged master. He had composed and recorded "Creole Rhapsody" as early as 1931, but it was not until the 1940s that this became a regular feature of Ellington's work. In this, he was helped by Strayhorn, who had enjoyed a more thorough training in the forms associated with classical music than Ellington himself. The first of these, "Black, Brown, and Beige" (1943), was dedicated to telling the story of African-Americans, the place of slavery, and the church in their history. Unfortunately, starting a regular pattern, Ellington's longer works were not well received; Jump for Joy, an earlier musical, closed after only six performances in 1941. A large memorial to Ellington, created by sculptor Robert Graham, was dedicated in 1997 in New York's Central Park, near Fifth Avenue and 110th Street, an intersection named Duke Ellington Circle.
  14. Duke Ellington Ellington was one of the twentieth century's best-known African-American celebrities. A man of suave demeanor and puckish wit that masked occasional brusqueness, Ellington preferred to call his style and sound "American music" rather than just jazz, and liked to describe those who impressed him as "beyond category," including and especially many of the musicians who served with his orchestra. He has inspired people like Miles Davis, Steve Wonder, and Judy Collins. He died of lung cancer and pneumonia on May 24, 1974
  15. Cab Calloway Cab Calloway was born on December 25, 1907. He was a famous American jazz singer and bandleader. Calloway was a master of energetic scat singing and led one of the United States most popular African American big bands from the start of the 1930s through the late 1940s. Calloway's Orchestra featured performers that included trumpeters Dizzy GillespieandAdolphus"Doc" Cheatham, saxophonists Ben Webster and Leon "Chu" Berry. He became known as "The man in the zoot suit with the reet pleats," who brought a whole new slang vocabulary to the nation along with his own brand of music via early radio broadcasts and extensive touring in the 1930s and 40s. He was on Broadway and the London stage with Porgy and Bess doing the character of "Sportin' Life" which he says was based on him.
  16. Cab Calloway In 1931, he recorded his most famous song, "Minnie the Moocher". That song, "St. James Infirmary Blues", and "The Old Man Of The Mountain" were performed for the Betty Boop animated shorts Minnie the Moocher, Snow White and The Old Man of the Mountain, respectively. Minnie the Moocher" was the first jazz album to sell a million copies On November 18, 1994, Calloway died after having suffered a major stroke six months previously.
  17. Billie Holiday Billie Holiday (Eleanora Fagan) was born on April 7, 1915. She grew up in the poor section of Baltimore, Maryland, near the projects. At the age of 11, she reported that she had been raped. In her later years she was called Lady Day. Holiday was working for Columbia in the late 1930s when she was introduced to a song entitled "Strange Fruit," which began as a poem about the lynching of a black man written by Abel Meeropol, a Jewish schoolteacher from the Bronx. She said that the imagery in "Strange Fruit" reminded her of her father's death, and that this played a role in her persistence to perform it. Holiday stated that she began using hard drugs in the early 1940s. In 1947 she was jailed on drug charges and served eight months at the Alderson Federal Correctional Institution for Women in West Virginia.
  18. Billie Holiday By the 1950s, Holiday's drug abuse, drinking, and relations with abusive men led to deteriorating health. Her voice coarsened and did not project the vibrance it once did. Holiday has long been considered one of the greatest jazz voices of all time with her emotive, poignant singing voice. She has inspired people like Diana Ross. She died on July 17, 1959.
  19. Miles Davis MilesDavis Miles Dewey Davis III was born on May 26,1926. He was born into a relatively wealthy African-American family living in Alton, Illinois. Miles Davis was one of the most distinguished jazz musicians of the latter half of the 20th century. A trumpeter, bandleader and composer, Davis was at the forefront of almost every major development in jazz from World War II to the 1990s. He played on various early bebop records and recorded one of the first cool jazz records. He was partially responsible for the development of modal jazz, and jazz fusion arose from his work with other musicians in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Free jazz was the only post-war jazz style not significantly influenced by Davis, although some musicians from his bands later pursued this style. His recordings, along with the live performances of his many influential bands, were vital in jazz's acceptance as music with lasting artistic value.
  20. Miles Davis A popularizer as well as an innovator, Davis became famous for his languid, melodic style and his laconic, and at times confrontational, personality. As an increasingly well-paid and fashionably-dressed jazz musician, Davis was also a symbol of jazz music's commercial potential. He died on September 28, 1991.
  21. Lyrics WHAT A WONDERFUL WORLD (Louis Armstrong) I see trees of green, red roses too I see them bloom for me and you And I think to myself, what a wonderful world I see skies of blue and clouds of white The bright blessed day, the dark sacred night And I think to myself, what a wonderful world The colours of the rainbow, so pretty in the sky Are also on the faces of people going by I see friends shakin' hands, sayin' "How do you do? They're really saying "I love you" I hear babies cryin', I watch them grow They'll learn much more than I'll ever know And I think to myself, what a wonderful world Yes, I think to myself, what a wonderful world Oh yeah Strange Fruit (Billie Holiday) Southern trees bear a strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and blood at the root. Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees. Pastoral scene of the gallant south, The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh, Then the sudden smell of burning flesh. Here is fruit for the crows to pluck, For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop, Here is a strange and bitter crop.
  22. Minnie the Moocher (Cab Calloway) Folks, now here's the story 'bout Minnie the Moocher, She was a red-hot hootchie-cootcher, She was the roughest, toughest frail, But Minnie had a heart as big as a whale. [Call and response scat chorus differs every time.] Hi-de-hi-de-hi-di-hi! Ho-de-ho-de-ho-de-ho! He-de-he-de-he-de-he! Ho-de-ho-de-ho! She messed around with a bloke named Smoky, She loved him though he was cokie, He took her down to Chinatown, And he showed her how to kick the gong around. She had a dream about the king of Sweden, He gave her things that she was needin', He gave her a home built of gold and steel, A diamond car with a platinum wheel. He gave her his townhouse and his racing horses, Each meal she ate was a dozen courses; She had a million dollars worth of nickels and dimes, She sat around and counted them all a million times. Poor Min, poor Min, poor Min.
  23. Social Connection Jazz, like all music, developed from earlier types of music. It started initially as a form of African-American music, uniting many features of folk music from West Africa (where the majority of African people had originated prior to arriving in the Americas) with other musical traits that came from Europe. Jazz developed from black work songs, field shouts, sorrow songs, hymns, and spirituals whose harmonic, rhythmic, and melodic elements were predominantly African. Jazz is not the result of choosing a tune, but an ideal that is created first in the mind, inspired by one's passion, and willed next in playing music. Its unique expression draws from life experience and human emotion as the inspiration of the creative force, and through this discourse is chronicled the history of a people. With Prohibition, the constitutional amendment that forbade the sale of alcoholic beverages, speakeasies emerged as nightlife settings, and many early jazz artists played in them.
  24. Characteristics Jazz represented a break from Western musical traditions, where the composer wrote a piece of music on paper and the musicians then tried their best to play exactly what was in the score. In a Jazz piece, the song is often just a starting point or frame of reference for the musicians to improvise around. The song might have been a popular ditty or blues that they didn't compose, but by the time they were finished with it they had composed a new piece that often bore little resemblance to the original song. A typical performance of a jazz composition may last ten minutes, of which only two minutes contain the original melody for the composition. This original composed melody, often called the "theme“ or "head", is played once or twice at the beginning and end. It serves mostly to identify the piece being played and to establish a context for the improvisations. While not all jazz performances follow this pattern, a great many of them do. The instruments that were used to created the jazz sound were the saxophone, trumpet, trombone, clarinet, piano, guitar, double bass, drums and vocals.
  25. Today’s world Today more than ever, we see a jazz influence in the music we listen to. Today we have smooth jazz, jazz rap, and electronica. In the 2000’s jazz started reaching the pop charts and has blended with Urban music by artist such as Norah Jones and Amy Winehouse. Today jazz has remerged and has refamiliarizeditself with the era of today by appearing on the silver screen and on the stage. Through musicals and movies like Thoroughly Modern Millie and Chicago, the 21st. century has started to grasp the old sounds that formed the music of today.
  26. Quiz Time Where and when was jazz first created. Describe the four types of jazz. What did Jazz express? Tell what each influencer contributed to the music jazz. Who had their voice in the Betty Boop animated short, “Minnie the Moocher? Do you think Jazz has influenced our music today? Why?
  27. The End
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