Addressing Student Motivation and Learning Styles With Different Blends of Technology Curt Bonk, Professor, Indiana University President, CourseShare firstname.lastname@example.org http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk http://CourseShare.com
Indiana Univ (8 campuses): Fall 2003Students: 99,693 loaded; 77,407 logged inFaculty: 7,461 loaded; 5,532 logged inCourses: 22,974 loaded; 7332 active
Illinois Virtual Campus (Spring 2003) • 68 Illinois institutions (public and private, 2-year and 4-year) • 3,951 course sections in spr ‘03 • 50,125 students, spring ’03 (24% inc.) • 125,074 online students during year (54% increase) • 34,399 for summer ’04 (45% increase) http://www.ivc.illinois.edu/ (Oakley, 2003)
The Sloan Consortium: Students(2003). Sizing the Opportunity: The Quality and Extent of Online Education in the U.S., 2002 and 2003 http://www.sloan-c.org/resources/sizing_opportunity.pdf • 2,033 surveys sent to Academic Leaders (Chief Academic Officers, President, etc.) • 994 (32.8% were returned) Findings: • Fall ’02: 1.6 million students took an online course • One-third (578,000) took all online • Among all students, 11% took at least 1 online • Projected to inc. 20% to 1.9 million students by fall ’03
The Sloan Consortium: Institution Portion(2003). Sizing the Opportunity: The Quality and Extent of Online Education in the U.S., 2002 and 2003 http://www.sloan-c.org/resources/sizing_opportunity.pdf • 81% at least one fully online or blended course • 97% of public institutions do • 34% offer complete degrees (49% for public ones) • 67% said it is crucial to LT strategy
The Sloan Consortium(2003). Sizing the Opportunity: The Quality and Extent of Online Education in the U.S., 2002 and 2003 http://www.sloan-c.org/resources/sizing_opportunity.pdf
Why the term blended?(Osguthorpe & Graham, 2003, Blended Learning Environments: Definitions and Directions) • “Hybrid is the interbreeding of two different species of animals or plants to create a new species” (i.e., a mongrel) • “Blended focuses on the mingling together in ways that lead to a well-balanced combination” (i.e., to mix)
What is being blended?Graham, Ure, & Allen (2003, July). Blended Learning EnvironmentsA Literature Review and Proposed Research Agenda • Instructional modalities/media (Web, instructor-led, simulations, documents) • Instructional methods (pedagogies—behavioral, constructivist) • Online and face-to-face instruction • Training and job tasks • Synchronous & asynchronous instruction • Live and self-paced training
Graham, Ure, & Allen (2003, July)Blended Learning EnvironmentsA Lit Review/Proposed Research Agenda
The Sloan Consortium(2003). Sizing the Opportunity: The Quality and Extent of Online Education in the U.S., 2002 and 2003 http://www.sloan-c.org/resources/sizing_opportunity.pdf • Traditional: 0% online technology • (all content in writing or orally) • Web facilitated: 1 to 29% online • (Web syllabus or tasks supplemental) • Blended/Hybrid: 30-79% of content is delivered online & some FTF meetings • Online: 80+% of content is online
Blended Learning Advantages • Course access, Flexibility, and convenience • Increased Learning (better papers, higher scores) • Cost effective (less class space & commuting) • More effective pedagogy and interaction ============================================ *Disadvantages: Time Procrastination Resistance Overwhelming, try too much
Examples of Blended Learning, Margaret Driscoll, e-Learning, March 2002 • Put assessments/reviews online • Follow-up in community of practice • Put reference materials on Web • Deliver pre-work online • Provide office hours online • Use mentoring/coaching tool • Access experts live online • Use e-mail and instant messaging
#1. Online Course Portals and Digital Libraries for Exploration Activities (e.g., MERLOT, Einstein Digital Manuscript Repository, May 20, 2003)
#2: Supplement Learning with Web Page (Human Intelligence Homepage, Jonathan Plucker, IU)
#3. Discussion Forums, Surveys, Word Docs, Web Links, Presentations
#4. Links to other papers, media, etc. (Computer Science Course; Pew project)
#6. Professional Development Learning Communities (Christine Dennis, Australian Catholic University)
#7. Some English Classes OnlineGraham, Ure, & Allen (2003, July)Blended Learning EnvironmentsA Literature Review and Proposed Research Agenda • Freshman English at BYU: Students are required to meet F2F once a week instead of three times a week. Online modules provide writing instruction and teaching assistants use online and F2F contact to provide feedback and guidance on writing (Waddoups et al., 2003).
Example #8: Web for Live MentoringMBA Program(Harvi Singh and Chris Reed (2001), Achieving Success with Blended Learning, Centra) • University of Tennessee Physicians Executive MBA program showed blended learning (physical and virtual live eLearning) students completed program in half the time and less than half the cost and with 10% more learning
#11. CPA Exam Review (June 14, 2003)and Web Videos in Accounting(July, 2003) • Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi combines CPA courseware with bi-monthly class meetings to prep for CPA Exam. (study text, proficiency questions, electronic flashcards and practice exams, scheduled assignments, goals, online grading, progress reports, tailored discussion groups, and personalized assistance from leading professors at the nation’s top accounting schools.)
#13. Just-In-Time-Teaching Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics Professor (teaches teamwork, collaboration, and effective communication): • Lectures are built around student answers to short quizzes that have an electronic due date just hours before class. • Instructor reads and summarizes responses before class and weaves them into discussion and changes the lecture as appropriate.
#14. Business Class Simulated Boardroom ChateCollege Wales, Univ. of Glamorgan
#15. Learner Content Interaction (business and healthcare examples, Option 6, Bloomington, Indiana)
Blended Works: Here’s ProofJeff Barbian, September 2002, Online Learning “The question is not if we should blend…rather the question is what are the ingredients.” • Per Marc Rosenberg, E-Learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age
Why Address Learning Styles? • Promotes reflection on teaching • Move from just one mode of delivery • Offer variety in the class • Might lower drop-out rates • Fosters experimentation • View from different viewpoints
Kolb (1984) • According to Kolb, effective learning involves four phases: • from getting involved (Concrete Experience) to • listening/observing (Reflective Observation) to • creating an idea (Abstract Conceptualization) to • making decisions (Active Experimentation). • A person may become better at some of these learning skills than others; as a result, a learning style develops.
Active Experimentation vs. Reflective Observation • (AE) - I often produce off-the-cuff ideas… • (RO) - I am thorough and methodical. • (AE) - I am flexible and open minded. • (RO) - I am careful and cautious. • (AE) - I am loud and outgoing. • (RO) - I am quite and somewhat shy.
Abstract Conceptualization vs. Concrete Experiences • (AC) - I am rational and logical. • (CE) - I am practical and down to earth. • (AC) - I plan events to the last detail. • (CE) - I like realistic, but flexible plans. • (AC) - I am difficult to get to know. • (CE) - I am easy to get to know.
Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire Barbara A. Soloman, North Carolina State Univhttp://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html
1. Read 4. Do 2. Reflect 3. Display
The R2D2 Method • Read (Auditory and Verbal Learners) • Reflect (Reflective Learners) • Display (Visual Learners) • Do (Tactile, Kinesthetic, Exploratory Learners)
Auditory and verbal learners prefer words, spoken or written explanations. 1. Auditory or Verbal Learners
1a. Videostreamed Lectures and Expert Commenting • Video streaming subscription services will take off in the next several years, according to a new study, which estimates that the market's value will reach $4.5 billion in 2007 (Sept 23, 2003, Stephanie Olsen, CNet News.com).
1c. Read and React to Documents in Foreign Language (Fraser & Liu, IU) • Have students receive e-newsletters from a foreign magazine as well as respond to related questions.
Reflective and observational learners prefer to reflect, observe, view, and watch learning; they make careful judgments and view things from different perspectives 2. Reflective and Observational Learners
2a. Job interviews & Internships • Learners interview someone about their job and post to the Web or Instructor provides reflection or prompt for job related or field observations • Reflect on job setting or observe in field • Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from chapter • Respond to peers • Instructor summarizes posts
2b. Conferences with Live Video Feeds(Internet Time Group, 6/23/03 http://www.internettime.com/visual/gallery6.htm)
Visual learners prefer diagrams, flowcharts, timelines, pictures, films, and demonstrations. 3. Visual Learners