Cockney Dialect • Used in London by the working class in certain areas • Characterized by its own special vocabulary and usage, and "rhyming slang.’
Reflexive Formation A. To create a reflexive pronoun, put the possessive pronoun together with the noun(s) self/selves .
Reflexive Formation Third person singular reflexive: Hisself/ Herself / Itself Third person plural reflexive: theirselves
Cockney Dialect and Reflexive Formation C. Singular: Himself/ Herself/ Itself Plural: Themselves D. 1. Prescriptive approach - List of explicit rules that we follow when we speak The forms in (b) are incorrect. Based on standard English rules, Hissself/Theirselves do not exist at all!
Cockney Dialect and Reflexive Formation 2. Descriptive approach - Model the rules that speakers implicitly use when speaking to each other The forms in (b) are correct! They follow the reflexive formation rule in (a). • “ systematic” : Follow a consistent rule Nonstandard forms of English such as Cockney Dialect, Middle English are more systematic with respect to reflexive formation
TokPisin • One of 3 official languages of Papua New Guinea • Literally means ‘Talk pidgin’ • English Creole Language • Originated from workers in colonial English/German plantations from different tribes who needed a common language • Returning workers brought back TokPisin as a lingua franca
TokPisin Phrases • ‘bilong’ is a preposition, functions like ‘of’/‘ from’ • ‘-im’ (from ‘him’) marks a transitiveverb
Question 3 Choosing an official language for Gavagaibabibahasa
Things to note • Gavagaibabibahasa newly independent country ∴ most important thing now is to achieve economic growth
Our Decision • French!
English Reason: • Unknown to 80% of population • Unable to communicate effectively
Dondon Reason: • Lacks the lexical and terminology repertoire needed for modernization and education
Ababa Reason: • Limited to people in the trading industry • Percentage of people in that industry is unknown
French Reason: • It has been in use for the past 80 years • Elites can bring economic growth to the country
Question 4 How would you explain to your parents/spouses/friends/loved ones, etc. what linguistics is and why we care about it in your own words? Obviously, these people may rightly have no idea what linguistics is and what linguists are doing unless they have taken a linguistic course. Specifically, what do we study natural language for? Why do we care about such things like wh-movement, minimal pairs, Chomsky, Singlish, or maxims of conversation!? Why study linguistics and what is it (to a layman)?
What is Linguistics? • Trick question… You should know by now
What is Linguistics? • It is the scientific study of language • Study of Sound • Study of Meaning • Study of Rules • Study of Origin • Phonology • Semantics, Pragmatics • Syntax • Sociolinguistics, Biolinguistics
Why study Linguistics? Linguistics uncovers how a language is formed, perceived and received. It is the science of an art. It is the making of the seemingly abstract and implicitly intuitive nature of language into a more simplified and universally understood manner. Through the understanding of the works of linguistics, we can better understand languages we utilize and equip ourselves with knowledge to acquire new ones. Also, especially through the understanding of sociolinguistics, people are more aware of their own linguistic differences and how it depends on the context to which certain slang or form is used (code-switching). This will hopefully influence the people to be more accepting of others despite their seemingly different accents. Also, the study of language is important as we need a common understanding to communicate. (e.g. IPA) Language is intriguingly the most obvious cognitive difference between our species and others, so it is imperative to investigate more on it. It is also the ground to all other disciplines so it has a significant impact on almost all the things we do. For example, to talk to each other, to direct instructions, to present in front of you guys! MAXIM OF QUANTITY
Why study Linguistics? • Helps in the understanding of our own language
Why study Linguistics? • Helps us understand other languages/accents
Why study Linguistics? IPA • Forge a common ground • Make foreign language easier to work with!
Why study Linguistics? • Just like any science, it aims to have 2 things: • Predictability • Efficiency Phonology helps especially if language is transparent (one sound-to-one symbol match)
Predictability Syntax also helps in predicting the correct order of words in sentence
Why study Linguistics? • Just like any science, it aims to have 2 things: • Predictability • Efficiency
Conclusion • Linguistics has enabled more effective communication between languages and people, forging understanding from different perspectives