Single Replacement Reactions A + BX AX + B BX + Y BY + X Replacement of: • Metals by another metal • Hydrogen in water by a metal • Hydrogen in an acid by a metal • Halogens by more active halogens
The Activity Series of the Metals • Lithium • Potassium • Calcium • Sodium • Magnesium • Aluminum • Zinc • Chromium • Iron • Nickel • Lead • Hydrogen • Bismuth • Copper • Mercury • Silver • Platinum • Gold Metals can replace other metals provided that they are above the metal that they are trying to replace. Metals above hydrogen can replace hydrogen in acids. Metals from sodium upward can replace hydrogen in water
The Activity Series of the Halogens • Fluorine • Chlorine • Bromine • Iodine Halogens can replace other halogens in compounds, provided that they are above the halogen that they are trying to replace. 2NaCl(s) + F2(g) 2NaF(s) + Cl2(g) MgCl2(s) + Br2(g) No Reaction
Single Replacement Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Solid magnesium is added to copper II nitrate. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a solution of sodium iodine Solid zinc is added to a solution of lead II nitrate.
STOICHIOMETRY OF PPT RX Calculate the mass of solid NaCl that must be added to 1.50 L of a 0.100 M AgNO3solutiont to precipitate all the Ag+ ions in the form of AgCl. Mixed Solution: Ag+ NO3- Na+Cl- NaNO3 is soluble and AgCl is insoluble. Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) AgCl (s) We must add enough Cl- ions to reach will all the Ag+ ions present. 1.5 L X 0.100 mol Ag+/L = 0.150 mol Ag+ Ag+ and Cl- react 1:1; 0.150 mol Cl- and 0.150 mol NaCl Mass of solid NaCl? 0.150 mol NaCl X 58.45 g NaCl/mol NaCl = 8.77 g NaCl
Homework • Problems #41, 43