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Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

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Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

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  1. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Water, Solutions, Precipitation Reactions, Acid-Base Reactions, and Reduction-Oxidation Reactions

  2. Solvation • Water’s Structure • Dissolving a Salt • Dissolving Ethanol • Electrolytes vs. Nonelectrolytes • Strong vs. Weak Acids

  3. Anatomy of a Solution • Solute • Solvent • Molarity • Dilution

  4. Precipitation Reactions • Solubility Rules • Nitrate salts are soluble • Alkali metal and ammonium salts are soluble • Most chloride salts are soluble…except Ag1+, Hg22+, Pb2+ • Most sulfate salts are soluble…except Ca2+, Ba2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ • Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble…except alkalis…and Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ are marginally soluble • Most sulfide, carbonate, chromate, and phosphate salts are only slightly soluble…except alkalis

  5. Precipitation Reactions • Molecular Equation • Complete Ionic Equation • Net Ionic Equation

  6. Acid-Base Reactions • Acid • Base • Net ionic equation

  7. Acid-Base Titrations • Titrant • Analyte • Equivalence point • End point • Standard solution

  8. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions(Redox) • Oxidation • Reduction • Oxidation number

  9. Assigning Oxidation Numbers • An atom in an element…0 • Monatomic ion…equals its charge • Oxygen in covalent cpds…-2 • Hydrogen in covalent cpds…+1 • Fluorine…-1 • Sum must equal charge of cpd or ion • When in doubt, assign more electronegative atom to be equal to its monatomic ion’s charge

  10. Balancing Redox Rxns…the half-reaction method • Write separate half-reactions without spectator ions • Balance non-H and non-O elements • Balance O using H2O or OH1- • Balance H using H1+ or H2O • Balance the charge with e- • Normalize the half-rxns • Add the half-rxns • Cancel like terms on opposite sides and add spectator ions where apropos