UNIT 3: HOMEOSTASIS AND IMMUNITY Living Environment, Mrs. Salmon
Topics to be Covered • Levels of Organization • Characteristics of Life/Life Processes • Body Systems • Dissection of an Animal Specimen (Pig or Frog) • Positive and Negative Feedback • Homeostasis • Disease • Pathogens • Immune Response • AIDS Education
Lesson 1 – Levels of Organization • SWBAT: Explain how life can be studied at different levels by describing the relationship of the levels of organization through a graphic organizer. • Standard:4-1.2 • Homework • Give dissection letter to your parent/guardian(s). After break, I will give them to you. Finish Mitosis Project! • Initial Activity: Use the glossary in your review book to define the following terms. • Cell: • Tissue: • Organ: • Organ System: • Organism:
Levels of Organization • We can study living things at different levels, whereas smaller levels are found within larger levels. • Group Activity: • Based on the definitions of terms you determined in the Initial Activity, show the relationship between the smaller levels and larger levels using a graphic organizer. Create this graphic organizer first in your notes before copying to computer paper • Example: • A tissue is a collection of cells that carry out the same function (or job). Therefore the level of cells is smaller than the level of tissues. Tissue Cell
The diagram below represents levels of organization in living things. Which term would best represent X? A. Human B. Tissue C. Stomach D. Organelle
LESSON 2 – CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE • SWBAT: Describe some characteristics of living things using one sentence summaries. • Standards: 4-1.2 Word of the Day • Metabolism • Initial Activity: Use the glossary in the red review book to define the following terms. • Sexual reproduction: • Asexual reproduction: • Metabolism: • Stimulus: • Homeostasis: • Evolution:
Characteristics of Life • All living things have certain common characteristics. • HOW living things can carry out these characteristics may differ from organism to organism. • Metabolism- different in plants (photosynthesis) than animals (cellular respiration only). Also includes nutrition and excretion. • The Characteristics of Life are….
How can we remember these characteristics? • Let’s make a mnemonic! • Metabolism • Obtain nutrients, Digestion, Cellular Respiration, Excrete • Reproduce (make more of their kind) • Stimuli (ability to respond to stimuli) • Cell • Homeostasis (internal balance) • Evolve (change over time) • Genetic (DNA, RNA) • Growth • MRS CHEGG
Work Activity: • Read pgs 1-3 in green review book to summarize the eight common characteristics of life into 1 sentence summaries each. • Answer questions 1-10 in green review book on pg 3 If you have extra time, please finish up your mitosis lab. Last day to do so!
LESSON 4 – BODY SYSTEMS • SWBAT Define the function of the human body systems and how they interact with each other to maintain homeostasis. • Standards: 4-1.2 • Homework • QUIZ on Friday – Body Systems (What is the major function(s) of each body system?) • DO NOW: • Define the following vocabulary terms using the glossary in your red review book: • Digestion • Respiration • Circulation • Excretion • Immunity
Major Organ Systems • Muscular System • Skeletal System • Circulatory System • Respiratory System • Nervous System • Digestive System • Excretory System • Endocrine System • Reproductive System
Organ Systems • Group Activity: • Your group will be assigned 1-2 organ system(s) to research. Use the textbook and review book to define the major function(s) of the body system as well as major organs of that organ system. • We will jigsaw after small group work, so it is imperative that all group members act as recorders today!!!
LESSON 3 – LIFE PROCESSES IN UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS • SWBAT Explain how unicellular organisms carry out life processes by comparing how these processes are carried out by multi-cellular organisms. • Standards: 4-1.2 • Word(s) of the day: Prokaryote, Eukaryote, Unicellular, Multi-cellular
Initial Activity • List all the characteristics of Living things, Hint: MRS CHEGG • Define the following terms using the glossary in the review book. • Unicellular and Multicellular, Flagellum, Cilia Psuedopod, • Copy the following table into your notebook:
Multicellular Organisms • What organ system(s) found in your body would muti-cellular organisms (such as ourselves) use to carry out these life functions listed on the chart?
UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS • What organelle(s) or cell part(s) would a unicellular organism use to carry out these life functions listed in the chart? • Let’s watch the video on single celled organisms, such as ameoba, euglena and paramecium to see how they live, then fill out our chart. • When done with chart, do the following…. • Green Review Book: Read pages 8-12. Complete questions 36-45.
HOME WORK- Due 1/4/11 SINGLE CELLED ORGANISM CREATIVE WRITING PEICE Write a one page creative writing piece from the perspective of a single celled organism. Describe the components and processes that enable you to live. You should Include the following: -Where you live -How you move -What you “eat” -How you make your energy -How you reproduce To receive a grade higher than an 80, you should Also include a self-portrait. You should draw and label critical components of your “body” that you discuss in your creative piece.
Lesson 5 – Dissection Overview • Learning Objective: Discuss safety procedures and techniques necessary to carry out • Standards: See Laboratory Checklist • Homework • Review Book: Read pages 158-159. Complete questions 31-34. • DO NOW:Copy the following terms into your notebook: • Anatomy • Dorsal • Ventral • Anterior • Posterior
Anatomical Terms • Anterior – head • Posterior – end of body/tail • Dorsal - belly (front) • Ventral – spinal column (back)
Dissection Tools • A- Scalpel • B - Scissors • D - Tweezers • H - Blunt End Probe • Dissecting Pins (not pictured) • Dissecting Pan (not pictured)
Lesson 6 – Frog Dissection • Learning Objective: Complete a dissection of a bullfrog to expose and study the internal anatomy of an animal. • Standards: (See Laboratory Checklist) • Homework: Finish laboratory analysis questions. • DO NOW: Read laboratory introduction. Review parts of the frog and organs that you must identify.
Lesson 7 – Feedback Mechanisms • Learning Objective: Describe how organisms respond to stimuli to maintain homeostasis. • Standards: • Homework: Read Review Book pages 25-27. Complete questions 42-53. • DO NOW: Define the following terms using the glossary in your review book: • Dynamic Equilibrium • Negative Feedback • Positive Feedback • Insulin • Guard Cells
Dynamic Equilibrium • Our bodies are constantly responding and adjusting to external and internal stimuli, causes small changes in our body temperature, blood sugar level, etc. We refer to these small changes as dynamic equilibrium. It is because of these small changes that we maintain homeostasis (balance).
Group Activity • Using the template worksheet, complete the charts to show the negative feedback mechanisms for Blood Sugar Level and Guard Cell in Plants.
Positive Feedback - Childbirth Positive Feedback
Lesson 8 - Pathogens • Learning Objective: Discuss types of organisms that can disrupt homeostasis and cause disease. • Standards: • Homework: Research one example of a pathogen discussed in class today and write a 5-sentence summary about the disease caused by that pathogen. • DO NOW: Define the following terms using the glossary in the review book: • Disease • Pathogen • Microbe • Infection
Bacteria Syphilis Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus
Virus Influenza HIV
Fungi Ringworm Athlete’s Foot
Parasite/Protozoan Tapeworm Malaria
Group activity • Write a brief (1-2 sentence max) description about the pathogen assigned to your table. Write this description on your easel. Use the textbook and review book to help you! • Table 1 – Bacteria • Table 2 – Virus • Table 3 – Fungi • Table 4 – Protozoan • Table 5 – Parasite
Treatment • How do we treat these diseases? • Bacteria – Antibiotics • Virus – Vaccine • Fungi – Antifungi medication • Protozoan – Antiprotozoan medication • Parasite – Antiparasite medication
Lesson 9 - Disease • Learning Objective: Discuss causes that result in failure of homeostasis. • Standards: • Homework: Take-home Quiz • DO NOW: Define the following terms using the glossary in the review book:
Causes of Diseases • Inherited Disorders • Exposure to Toxins (Poisons) • Poor Nutrition • Organ Malfunction • High-Risk Behaviors • Pathogens (previously discussed)
Group Activity • Characterize this cause of disease in 1-2 sentences. Give at least one example of a disease that could result from this cause. • Table 1 – Inherited Disorder • Table 2 - Exposure to Toxins • Table 3 - Poor Nutrition • Table 4 - Organ Malfunction • Table 5 - High Risk Behavior
Examples of Diseases • Inherited Disorders • Cystic Fibrosis • Sickle-Cell Anemia • Down’s Syndrome • Exposure to Toxins (Poisons) • Alcohol • Nicotine • Lead • Poor Nutrition • Anemia • Scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency) • Organ Malfunction • Kidney Failure • Heart Attack • Diabetes • High-Risk Behaviors • Lung Cancer • Skin Cancer • AIDS • Heart Attack • Pathogens (previously discussed)
Lesson 10 – Immune Response • Learning Objective: Describe how the immune system responds to pathogens so as to fight disease. • Standards: • Homework: Read pages 29-31. Complete question 35-69. • DO NOW: Define the following terms using the glossary in the review book: • Antigen • Antibody • Allergy • HIV
The Immune Response *Antigen = ID card Cytotoxic T Cells = Killer T Cells
Immune System Disorders • Allergies – the immune system responds to harmless substances (i.e. food, pollen, dust, lotions, etc) • HIV – Attacks Helper T-Cells and weakens immune response.