Structure and Objectives of the Lecture • Section One: Assess the extent to which ‘de- politicisation’ in response to changes in global economic structures undermines poplar democracy. • Section Two: Brief analyse of evolving meaning of citizenship in liberal democracy
Section Three:Evaluate the extent to which a shift from a politics of ‘becoming’ to a politics of being is taken place and to explore the implications of such a shift.
Section One • In attempt to offer certainty to market actors remove key aspects of economic policy from democratic control • Central Bank Independence, Independent Financial Regulators and a more general regulatory framework dominated by independent agencies • Furthermore, policy is constrained by commitments to supranational organisations
Add to the mix the effects of sub-contracting and public-private initiatives and we could argue that majority key decisions of social/economic management are outside effective control of central government. • Reforms are designed to redefine contentious political tasks as apolitical technical tasks • When we vote for a government what do we actually vote for?
UK Outside government control: Industrial policy, monetary policy, trade policy, regulatory policy and the basic structure of social policy/ infrastructure provision. • So we vote over whether we want slightly lower taxes or slightly higher spending on health and education.
This is a problem? It depends on your perspective • How different it from before? Depends on country and point of comparison.
Section Two • Kanishka Jaysurayia • What it means to be citizen in Liberal Democracy changing in response to globalisation • Stripping of Economic and Social Content of citizenship and substantive freedoms • Individual autonomy is equated with capacity to freedom to participate in the market
Kanishka Jaysurayia analysis can be linked to Cox work on polarisation and even some statements by arch-capitalist like Warren Buffet • Severe inequality poses a treat to democratic political life
The market is not conceived of a structure of power from which individual ought to enjoy certain freedoms • Shift in the citizenship frontier • These ideas can be linked to Cox’s work on polarisation….
Section Three • Politics of Becoming: Liberalism and Marxism. Universal Projects of Realisation. Future Perfect. Not confined to particular sections of society • Politics of Being: Politics of Identity in one form of another. Your politics become defined by membership of particular group and become concerned with that groups struggle.
Harvey argues in response to space-time compression individuals look for fixed representations of community to belong to. Thus place and identity dominants over project of becoming • Also we can argue the decline in mainstream notions of social-economic citizenship creates environment were politics of being can flourish
Section Three • How do we define place and Identity? All acts of definition involve a act of imaging. All acts of understanding place are aseathic ised How do we understand ‘the city’ a mass of realities and interactions Through the consumption of asethicised images
My favourite city is New York….. • My understanding of the City has been shaped by….
Someone else may understand the city in a very different way. Another example is London. For me London is….
The city has so many realities as to lack a objective reality • Equally identities are so complex. What is blackness? • Movements create aestheticised ideas and counter ideas
In a sense ‘politics of being’ is about defining and selling a particular notion of identity/place (as opposed to becoming). There is a left and right wing version of politics of being. Although both are in some ways reactionary (as they look to the past). Also emphasis on individual charisma
Regan and Americanism • Politics of Image and Representation of particular myth of America… • Also politics of personal image
The same can be said about Thatcher. Britain and Power representation….. • John Major: Warm beer, cricket and nuns on bicycles
A similar obsession with place (identity) can be seem in the evolution of cultural forms….. • Compare Place in Jazz (50s, 60s) and Hip-Hop (90s, 00s). Hip-hop marked obsession with highly localised sense of place…..
Problems with identity politics • Many forms obviously pathological (Yugoslavia, Bin Laden) • Mainstream aestheticism, always dangers of racism and reaction. • Intrinsic Limitations even in progressive forms (Gay and Racial Rights)….. Never be ultimately be about universal emancipation Also tends to produce pathologies
Large sections of Black Nationalist movement are anti-semantic, homophobic and sexist • “Cause a Black hand Squeezed on Malcolm X the man” (Public Enemy)
Human Emancipation ultimately requires a politics of becoming (a universal vision of emancipation). At best victories of identity politics are likely to be partial.
Conclusion • Our understanding of the significance of processes of de-politicisation and citizenship is critically dependant on our understanding of democracy • For scholars such as Schumpeter and Weber this is no need for alarm • However for social-democratic theorists (proponents) of democracy changes in scope of democratic control and citizenship are far more damaging
I think it more difficult for anyone to be entirely comfortable with the rise of identity politics. Although clearer some forms have had progressive effects • Backward Linkages: State, Harvey • Forward: Labour, Welfare