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Promoting Health and Safety of Children

Promoting Health and Safety of Children

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Promoting Health and Safety of Children

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  1. Promoting Health and Safety of Children Unit 4 Parenting Mrs. Loggins Curriculum Frameworks 4.1-4.7

  2. Curriculum Frameworks • FW 4.1: Define terms related to promoting health and safety of children. • 4.1.1: Apply terms in correct context. • FW 4.2: List general guidelines for childproofing the home. (N.S. 4.4) (C.P.-HMC 06), (C.P.-HMC06.01.02) • 4.2.1: Identify potential hazards within various scenarios. (C.P. HMC 06.01) • FW 4.3: Name common childhood illnesses. • 4.3.1: Explain care required for common childhood illnesses including the common cold, fever, ear infection, influenza, sore throat, diarrhea, asthma, allergies. FW 4.

  3. FW 4.4: Describe medical checkups and immunizations. • 4.4.1: Chart a schedule of routine checkups and immunizations from birth to age 18. • FW 4.5: Designate appropriate care for injuries. • 4.5.1: Demonstrate first aid for minor injuries. • 4.5.2: Explain first aid for medical emergencies. • FW 4.6: Explain car seat safety guidelines for children of various ages. • 4.6.1: Research child vehicle safety restraint laws. • FW 4.7: Describe child abuse and neglect. (N.S. 15.2.4) • 4.7.1: List causes of child abuse and neglect. • 4.7.2: List symptoms of child abuse and neglect. (N.S. 4.4.5) • 4.7.3: Outline procedure for reporting suspected abuse or neglect. (N.S. 4.4.5) Curriculum Frameworks Continued… FW 4.

  4. Unit 4 Vocabulary • Allergies: oversensitivity to one or more common substances. • Artificial Respiration: a procedure for forcing air into the lungs of a person whose breathing has stopped. • Asthma: a condition affecting the lungs in which air passages tighten, making it difficult to breathe. • Child Abuse: physical, emotional, or sexual violence against children. • Child Neglect: failure to meet the child’s physical or emotional needs. • Communicable Diseases:illnesses that are easily passed from one person to another. FW 4.

  5. Contagious: the ability to be spread from one person to another. The period during which a communicable disease can be spread to another person. • Convulsion: a seizure or a period of unconsciousness with uncontrolled jerking of muscles. • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): first aid technique that tries to restore breathing and heartbeat to persons who show no signs of breathing or pulse. • Fracture: a break or crack in the bone. • Heimlich Maneuver: procedure that removes food or other obstacles from a choking person’s airway. Vocabulary Continued… FW 4.

  6. Immunization: to protect a person from disease, usually by means of a vaccine. • Poison Control Center: a special unit that gives advice for and treats victims of poisoning. • Shaken Baby Syndrome:a serious type of physical abuse that occurs when a baby is violently shaken. • Sprain:an injury caused by sudden, violent stretching of a joint or muscle. • Vaccine: a small amount of disease-carrying germs introduced to the body on purpose so that the body can build resistance to that disease. • Wellness:the process of acquiring and maintaining physical, mental, emotional, and social health. Vocabulary Continued… FW 4.

  7. Childproofing the Home • Accidents are the leading cause of death for children over 1 year old. • Provisions to the home need to be made as soon as the child begins to crawl. • Make the home safe from the child’s point of view. • Get down on the ground and look around. • Check for small parts or pocket change that may be on the floor. FW 4.2 and 4.2.1

  8. Childproofing the Home • Cover all electrical outlets with caps or shields. • Keep electric fans and heaters out of reach. • Lock up dangerous items. • Guns • Ammunition • Power Tools • To prevent poisoning, store household chemicals in a securely locked cabinet. • Typically the higher cabinets are better. FW 4.2 and 4.2.1

  9. Childproofing the Home • Use childproof latches to keep children out of low cabinets. • Close the cover on the washer/dryer when not in use. • Use window guards • Windows cannot be opened more than 6 inches. • Ensure furniture cannot be tipped over. • Cushion edges on tables with foam pads. • Use baby gates • Especially in staircases! • Get rid of poisonous houseplants or move them out of reach of young children. FW 4. FW 4.2 and 4.2.1

  10. Childproofing the Home FW 4. FW 4.2 and 4.2.1

  11. Childproofing the Home • In the Kitchen: • Pan handles turned toward the back of the range. • Use rear burners when possible. • Sharp Objects/Glass can be hazardous. • Keep knives and other sharp utensils off countertops. • Try to limit glass items when children are at the table. • Avoid tablecloths that hang over the edge of the table. • Unplug and hide the cords of appliances that could be pulled off of a table or counter. FW 4.2 and 4.2.1

  12. Childproofing the Home • In the Bathroom: • Children can drown in the toilet. • Install a latch on the toilet lid. • Make sure all OTC and prescription medications are stored in high cabinets with safety latches or locks. • Make sure water temperature is not too hot. • Skid proof mats for bottom of tub. • Never leave a child unattended! FW 4.2 and 4.2.1

  13. Childproofing the Home • Around Heat Sources: • Keep children away from radiators, space heaters, and fireplaces. • Install guards • Guards should be used until children are old enough to understand about the risk of burns from heat sources. • Keep matches and lighters out of the reach of children. FW 4.2 and 4.2.1

  14. Common Childhood illnesses • Common cold • Fever • Ear infection • Influenza • Seasonal • H1N1 • Sore throat • Diarrhea • Asthma • Allergies FW 4.3

  15. Common Childhood illnesses • Common Cold • Congestion • Saline Nose Drops can help thin mucus. • Suction bulb can help remove mucus from the nose. • Decongestant can be given as directed on package label. • Humidifier • Blowing nose • If the nose or cheeks become irritated, use petroleum jelly. • Cough • Keep well hydrated to help soothe cough. • During rest time, elevate the head. • Cough medicine as directed on package label. • Sore Throat/Fever • See a doctor to make sure it isn’t something more serious like strep throat. • Fever indicates infection in the body. • After the child has been seen by a physician, fever reducer such as Tylenol can be given to minimize pain and reduce fever. FW 4.3.1

  16. Common Childhood illnesses • Fever • Occurs when the body's internal "thermostat" raises the body temperature above its normal level. • Causes of Fever: Infection and children who recently vaccinated. • Cause for concern: a temperature over 102 F • Treat with a children’s fever reducer • NEVER give a child ASPIRIN! FW 4.3.1

  17. Your child has a temperature if: • 100.4° F (38° C) measured rectally (in the bottom) • 99.5° F (37.5° C) measured orally (in the mouth) • 99° F (37.2° C) measured in an axillary position (under the arm) • Types of Thermometers: • Digital • Glass Mercury Thermometer • Not recommended! • Mercury is an environmental TOXIN! • Electric Ear Thermometer • Forehead Thermometer • Pacifier Thermometer • Plastic Strip Thermometer FW 4.3.1

  18. Which thermometer do I use to take a child’s temperature? • For kids younger than 3 months, you'll get the most reliable reading by using a digital thermometer to take a rectal temperature. Electronic ear thermometers aren't recommended for infants younger than 3 months because their ear canals are usually too small. • For kidsbetween 3 months to 4 years old, you can use a digital thermometer to take a rectal temperature or an electronic ear thermometer to take the temperature inside the ear canal. You could also use a digital thermometer to take an axillary temperature, although this is a less accurate method. • Axillary: area near the axilla. • Axilla: underneath the arm; armpit area. • For kids4 years or older, you can usually use a digital thermometer to take an oral temperature if your child will cooperate. However, kids who have frequent coughs or are breathing through their mouths because of stuffy noses might not be able to keep their mouths closed long enough for an accurate oral reading. In these cases, you can use the tympanic method (with an electronic ear thermometer) or axillary method (with a digital thermometer). • Wait 20 to 30 minutes after a child eats or drinks when taking temperature orally. • This ensures that you receive an accurate reading. FW 4.3.1

  19. Common Childhood illnesses • Ear Infection • Causes: • The most common cause of acute ear infections is an upper respiratory infection that spreads to the ears. • Inflammation from the infection causes the eustachian tube to swell shut, and traps bacteria in the middle ear cavity. • FYI: In 1/3 of all acute ear problems, have no bacteria present. FW 4.3.1

  20. Common Childhood illnesses • Ear Infection • “Glue Ear” • occurs when the middle ear fills with a sticky, glue-like fluid instead of air. • This fluid dampens the vibrations made by sound waves as they travel through the eardrum and ossicles. • The cochlea in turn receives dampened vibrations, and so the 'volume' of hearing is essentially 'turned down'. • This is why glue ear children display symptoms such as dulled or apparent ‘selective hearing’. FW 4.3.1

  21. Common Childhood illnesses • Ear Infection • Signs and Symptoms • Fever • Tugging at the Ear • Complaining about pain in the ear • Crankiness • Crying more than usual • Having difficulty sleeping • Having difficulty hearing • Headache • Drainage from the ear FW 4.3.1

  22. Ear Infection • Ruptured Eardrum • is a hole or tear in your eardrum, the thin drum-like tissue that separates your ear canal from your middle ear. • A ruptured eardrum can result in hearing loss and make your middle ear vulnerable to infections or other injury. • A ruptured eardrum usually heals within a few weeks without treatment. • Sometimes, you may need a procedure to promote healing of a ruptured eardrum, or need surgical repair for a ruptured eardrum. • Signs and Symptoms of a Ruptured Eardrum: • Sharp, sudden ear pain that usually goes away quickly • Clear, pus-filled or bloody drainage from your ear • Hearing loss • Ringing in your ear (tinnitus) • Spinning sensation (vertigo) that usually goes away quickly • Nausea or vomiting that can result from vertigo FW 4.3.1

  23. Common Childhood illnesses • Ear Infection: • Treatment: • Antibiotics • Over using antibiotics or prescribing the wrong type of antibiotics will cause strands of bacteria to become more stubborn. • Makes treating ear infections more difficult. • Treatment of allergies • Removal of adenoids • Usually not an effective in treating build up of fluid in the ear. • Tubes • May cause scarring of the eardrums in ½ of patients who have them put in. • Usually children outgrow ear infections • Approximately by age 7. FW 4.3.1

  24. Pictures of Tubes Used for the Treatment of Chronic Ear Infections FW 4.3.1

  25. Common Childhood illnesses • Ear Infection: • Prevention: • Breastfeeding helps to pass along immunities to a child that may prevent ear infections. • The position the child is in while breastfeeding is better than the usual bottle-feeding position for optimal eustachian tube function. • If a child must be bottle-fed, it is best to hold the infant rather than allow him or her to lie down with the bottle. • Because multiple upper respiratory infections may increase the risk for acute otitis media, reducing the exposure to large groups of children, particularly in daycare centers, may reduce the incidence. • Children should also be kept away from environmental irritants such as secondhand tobacco smoke. FW 4.3.1

  26. Common Childhood illnesses • Influenza • Children 0-5 years old and those with other health conditions are at greater risk of being hospitalized with complications from the flu. • Symptoms: • Fever (usually high) • Headache • Tiredness (can be extreme) • Cough • Sore throat • Runny or stuffy nose • Body aches • Diarrhea and vomiting (more common among children than adults) FW 4.3.1

  27. Common Childhood illnesses • How to care for a child with the flu? • Hydration • Water, restore electrolytes. • Pedialyte in liquid or popsicle form • Gatorade • Liquid should be taken in small sips frequently. • Keep fever down by using a fever reducer for children. • Lots of Rest • Dress your child in layers • They can add or remove clothing based on current temperature (chills/sweating) FW 4.3.1

  28. Common Childhood illnesses • Emergency Signs of the Flu • In children • Fast breathing or trouble breathing • Bluish skin color • Not drinking enough fluids • Not waking up or not interacting • Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough FW 4.3.1

  29. Common Childhood illnesses • Sore Throat (Also known as “pharyngitis“) • If running a temperature see doctor to test for strep throat. • Antibiotics will be needed if tested positive for strep. • Treatment: • Plenty of Fluids • Rest • Soft Foods • Pain/Fever Reducer if needed FW 4.3.1

  30. Common Childhood illnesses • Diarrhea • loose, watery stools occurring more than three times in one day – is a common problem that usually lasts a day or two and goes away on its own without any special treatment. • Prolonged diarrhea can be a sign of other problems. • Diarrhea can cause dehydration. • You should see the doctor if: • You have diarrhea for more than 3 days. You have severe pain in the abdomen or rectum. You have a fever of 102 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. You see blood in your stool or have black, tarry stools. • Treatment: • Hydrate the child • Over the Counter Medication can be used to slow/stop diarrhea. • Consult doctor before use • Not usually recommended-stopping the diarrhea traps the organism in the body. • Cause intense abdominal cramping. FW 4.3.1

  31. Common Childhood illnesses • Asthma • Constriction and inflammation of the airways. • Signs and Symptoms: • Difficulty Breathing, Wheezing, Coughing, Tightness of the Chest. • Treatment: • Inhalers • Daily medication taken orally • Allergy Shots FW 4.3.1

  32. The Anatomy of Asthma FW 4.3.1

  33. Common Childhood illnesses • Allergies • Common Allergens: • Indoor Mold, Animals, Cockroaches, Dust Mites • How to Treat: • Over the Counter Allergen Reducers • Dust/Clean/Vacuum Frequently • Vacuum Needs to have a HEPA filter. • Change bedding and other household linens frequently. • HEPA Filter for child’s bedroom • Allergy Testing • Allergy Shots (Immunotherapy) FW 4.3.1

  34. Common Childhood illnesses • Food Allergens • Symptoms: • skin: itchy red bumps (hives); eczema; redness and swelling of the face or extremities; itching and swelling of the lips, tongue, or mouth (skin reactions are the most common type of reaction) • gastrointestinal tract: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea • respiratory tract: runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath • cardiovascular system: lightheadedness or fainting • Any food can cause an allergy. FW 4.3.1

  35. Common Childhood illnesses • Food Allergies Continued… • 90% of allergic reactions come from these foods: • Milk, Eggs, Peanuts, Fish, Shellfish, Soy, Wheat • Some allergies can be so severe that the food item may not even be able to be in the home. • Treatment:Avoid eating trigger foods, two epinephrine auto injectors (commonly called EpiPens) • After your child receives epinephrine, you should go immediately to a hospital emergency room so additional treatment can be given, if needed. • Also, they'll observe your child for at least 4 hours to watch for signs of a second wave of symptoms (called a biphasic reaction) that occurs in many cases FW 4.3.1

  36. Why should I not give a child aspirin? • Reye Syndrome • Reye syndrome is linked to the use of aspirin and some viral illnesses. • Cause is unknown. • Is NOT contagious • Disease mostly effects those who have just had an illness like the flu or chicken pox and taken aspirin. • Prevention: Those under 20 should not consume aspirin. • Unless prescribed by a doctor. FW 4.3.1

  37. Why should I not give a child aspirin? • Reye Syndrome • Symptoms: • Sudden onset of retching or vomiting that is not clearly due to stomach flu. • Sluggishness, lack of energy, and loss of interest in surroundings. • Strange behavior, such as staring, irritability, personality change, and slurred speech. • Drowsiness that may lead to severe sleepiness (stupor). • As brain damage progresses, other symptoms may develop, including: • Confusion and inability to identify whereabouts or family members or to answer simple questions (disorientation). • Rapid, deep breathing (hyperventilation). • Aggressive behavior, such as hitting others without reason (combativeness). • Seizures and abnormal body positioning, and coma. • If Reye syndrome is not recognized and treated promptly, death can occur. FW 4.3.1

  38. Treatment of Reye’s Syndrome • If a child has symptoms of Reye syndrome, get medical care immediately. • Early treatment increases the chance for full recovery. • If the disease is diagnosed early, most children recover from Reye syndrome in a few weeks. • But some children develop permanent brain damage. • The goal of treatment is to stop damage to the brain and liver and to prevent complications. • All children with Reye syndrome are treated in a hospital intensive care unit. FW 4.3.1

  39. Medical Checkups • These are needed to ensure that the child is growing and developing properly. • Adequate growth usually indicates the child is healthy. • An infant should see the doctor at age:12, 15, 18, and 24 months. • They will see the doctor for vaccinations in between those times during baby’s 1st year of life. • 2 year olds-6 year olds: once every year. • Check ups at 8 and 10 year olds and as needed. FW 4.4

  40. What is a vaccine? • When germs enter the body, the immune system recognizes them as foreign substances (antigens). The immune system then produces the right antibodies to fight the antigens. • Vaccines contain antigens that cause diseases. However, the antigens in vaccines are weakened or killed. This means they cannot produce the signs or symptoms of the disease, but they do stimulate the immune system to create antibodies. These antibodies help protect you if you are exposed to the disease in the future. • Vaccines not only help keep your child healthy, they help all children by stamping out serious childhood diseases. • Immunization: to protect a person from disease, usually by means of a vaccine. FW 4.4.1

  41. Immunizations Charts courtesy of: www.cdc.gov FW 4.4.1

  42. Immunizations Charts courtesy of: www.cdc.gov FW 4.4.1

  43. Are vaccines safe? • Vaccines are generally quite safe. • The protection provided by vaccines far outweighs the very small risk of serious problems. • Vaccines have made many serious childhood diseases rare today. • Questions about safety of vaccines and Autism. • If parents are worried about Autism, the Family Doctor can space the immunizations further apart. FW 4.4.1

  44. Do vaccines have side effects? • Some vaccines may cause mild temporary side effects: • Fever, Soreness, lump under the skin at shot injection site. • Your family doctor will talk to you about possible side effects with certain vaccines. • Tip: Give a dose of children’s Tylenol 30 minutes prior to the visit to ease pain of shot and soreness after. FW 4.4.1

  45. Are there any reasons my child should not be vaccinated? • In some special situations, children shouldn't be vaccinated. • For example, some vaccines shouldn't be given to children who have certain types of cancer or certain diseases, or who are taking drugs that lower the body's ability to resist infection. • If your child has had a serious reaction to the first shot in a series of shots, your family doctor will probably talk with you about the pros and cons of giving him or her the rest of the shots in the series. • If you are concerned about how a shot may effect a child, you should speak to the doctor first. FW 4.4.1

  46. What is the flu vaccine? • The flu vaccine is available by shot or by nasal spray. • The flu shot contains dead viruses. • The nasal-spray vaccine contains live but weakened viruses. • You cannot get the flu from the flu shot or the nasal-spray vaccine. • The flu vaccine is given at the beginning of the flu season, usually in October or November. • The flu shot is safe for children 6 months of age and older. • The nasal spray vaccine is safe for children 2 years of age and older. • Because flu viruses change from year to year, it is very important for your child to get the vaccine each year so that he or she will be protected. • Children are more likely to have complications from the flu. FW 4.4.1

  47. What is the DTaP vaccine? • The DTaP vaccine is 3 vaccines in 1 shot. • It protects against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. • It's given as a series of 5 shots. • Diphtheria is a disease that attacks the throat and heart. • It can lead to heart failure and death. • Tetanus is also called "lockjaw." • It can lead to severe muscle spasms and death. • Pertussis (also called "whooping cough") causes severe coughing that makes it hard to breathe, eat and drink. It can lead to pneumonia, convulsions, brain damage and death. • Having your child immunized when they are young protects your child against these diseases for about 10 years. • After this time, your child will need booster shots. FW 4.4.1

  48. What is the Td vaccine? • The Td vaccine is used as a booster to the DTaP vaccine. • It helps prevent tetanus and diphtheria. • It's given when your child is 11 years old or older and every 10 years throughout life. FW 4.4.1

  49. What is the IPV vaccine? • The IPV (inactivated poliovirus) vaccine helps prevent polio. • It's given 4 times as a shot. • It has replaced the older oral polio vaccine. • Polio can cause muscle pain and paralysis of one or both legs or arms. • It may also paralyze the muscles used to breathe and swallow. • It can lead to death. FW 4.4..1

  50. What is the MMR vaccine? • The MMR vaccine protects against the measles, mumps and rubella. • It's given as 2 shots. • Measles causes fever, rash, cough, runny nose and watery eyes. It can also cause ear infections and pneumonia. Measles can also lead to more serious problems, such as brain swelling and even death. • Mumps causes fever, headache and painful swelling of one or both of the major saliva glands. Mumps can lead to meningitis (infection of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord) and, very rarely, to brain swelling. Rarely, it can cause the testicles of boys or men to swell, which can make them unable to have children. • Rubella is also called the German measles. It causes slight fever, a rash and swelling of the glands in the neck. Rubella can also cause brain swelling or a problem with bleeding. • If a pregnant woman catches rubella, it can cause her to lose her baby or have a baby who is blind or deaf, or has trouble learning. • Some people have suggested that the MMR vaccine causes autism. However, good research has shown that there is no link between autism and childhood vaccinations. FW 4.4.1