contact 9821131002 9029004242 n organisms n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Diversity in Organisms PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Diversity in Organisms

Diversity in Organisms

6 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Diversity in Organisms

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 n Organisms Organisms INFOMATICA ACADEMY Diversity Diversity i in  EXERCISE 1.Describe the hierarchy of taxonomic categories. 2.What is binomial nomenclature ? Explain it with a suitable example. Give its advantages. 3.Give the economic importance of lichens, 4.Describe the types of viruses and give their economic importance. 5.Give the general characters and examples of: i)Kingdom Monera ii)Kingdom Protista iii)Kingdom Fungi iv)Kingdom plantae v)Kingdom Animalia 6.Describe the types of lichens on the basis of their thallus organization. 7.Give the general characters of viruses 8.Write a note on viroids 9.Give the diagrammatic representation of five-kingdom system of classification 10.Define the terms (i) Taxonomy (ii)category (iii) Taxon (iv) Nomenclature Nomenclature? 11.Who proposed binomial system of nomenclature? 12.What is meant by vernacular name? 13.Why it is said that vernacular confusion? 14.Unicellular prokaryrotic organisms are included in which kingdom? 15.Which kingdom forms a link between prokaryotes and complex eukaryotes? 16.What are coenocytic hyphae? 17.Who demonstrated tobacco mosaic disease to be infectious? 18.Explain the characteristics of living organisms. 19.Why growth and reproduction can not be the defining characteristics of living organisms? 20.Explain diversity in living organisms. 21.Why are living organisms classified? 22.Define the terms: (i) Systematics (ii) Taxonomy 23.What are the objectives of systematics? 24.Define the term: classification. 25.Who had coined the term „classification‟? 26.Why are classification systems changing every now and then ? F.Y.J.C Science 1 Diversity in Organisms

  2. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 27.What are the three domains of life ? 28.Who developed the three domain system? 29.How was three domain system developed 30.What is the main aim of taxonomic study? 31.Define taxonomic hierarchy. 32.Who coined the term taxon? 33.Mention the highest and the lowest category in the hierarchy of categories? 34.Write a short note on concept of species. 35.Describe the hierarchy of taxonomic categories. OR Define the following terms: i. Species ii. Genus iii. Family iv. Order v. Sub-class vi. Class vii. Division / Phylum viii. Sub kingdom ix. Kingdom 36.Mention the various units of classification in descending manner. 37.Define a taxon. Give some examples of taxa at different hierarchical levels. 38.Write the classification of China rose. 39.Give the classification of man. 40.Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with suitable examples of a plant and an animal. 41.Give the classification of Cobra. 42.What are the major purposes of nomenclature? 43.Explain advantages of vernacular names. 44.Write the disadvantages of vernacular names. 45.What is the need of binomial system of nomenclature? 46.Who was Carolus Linnaeus? 47.Define binomial nomenclature. 48.Which are the two languages used in binomial nomenclature? 49.Why was binomial system of nomenclature useful and easier than polynomial system? 50.Give Reason “Scientific names are universal”. 51.What is citation ? 52.What are synonyms ? 53.Give the example in which species name is repeated when genera are different. 54.Who introduced the two kingdom system of classification ? 55.Which two kingdoms were there, according to two kingdom system of classification ? 56.What was the drawback of two kingdom system of classification ? 57.Who suggested the third kingdom protista ? 58.Who suggested five kingdom classification? F.Y.J.C Science 2 Diversity in Organisms

  3. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 59.State the principles of five kingdom classification. Also, mention the five kingdoms. 60.In which kingdom all prokaryotic organisms are included? 61.In which kingdom unicellular eukaryotes are included? 62.Write a short note on „plant like protists‟. 63.What is a nature of cell walls in diatoms? 64.Explain how fungi exhibit heteromorphic mode of nutrition? 65.Classify the kingdom fungi, giving examples of each class. 66.Mention the plants in which vascular tissues are present. 67.On what basis are fungi separated from plantae ? 68.Which mode of nutrition is observed in kingdom animalia? 69.State the various advantages of five kingdom system of classification. 70.State the disadvantages of five kingdom system. 71.Who was the first to use the word lichen ? 72.What are lichens? Describe its different types. 73.Give the ecological importance of lichens. 74.What are phycobiont and mycobiont in lichen ? OR What do the term phycobiont and mycobiont signify? 75.Why lichens do not grow near the cities. 76.Which are the types of lichens commonly called as leafy lichens and shruby lichens ? 77.Which types of association is exhibited by lichens? 78.Define viruses? 79.What are the common symptoms shown by plants due to viral infection ? 80.List out the viruses and diseases caused by them to animals. 81.Give in brief account of viruses with respect to their structure and nature of genetic material. Also name four common viral diseases. 82.Are viruses living or non living? Discuss. OR Viruses show both living and non - living characteristics. Explain. 83.Which was the observation made by Mayer about TMV ? 84.Who gave the term virus ? 85.What was the Ivanowski‟s contribution for study of TMV ? 86.Who referred virus as „ contagiam vivum fluidum‟ ? 87.Who discovered viroids? 88.Write the difference between virus and viroid. OR How are viroids different from viruses? F.Y.J.C Science 3 Diversity in Organisms

  4. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY  MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.___________ is the defining property of living organisms. (A)reproduction (B) consciousness (C) self replication (D) growth 2.The term „classification‟ was coined by (A)Theophrastus (B) A.P. de Candolle (C) Aristotle (D) Linnaeus 3.The main purpose of classification of organisms is to (A)study geography (C) establish relationships (B)locate animals (D) study keys to plant‟s evolution 4.Kingdom Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia are included under domain (A)Eukarya (C) Bacteria (B)Archaea (D) Cyanobacteria 5.A taxonomic group of any rank is called (A)grade (B) category (C) variety (D) taxon 6.One of the following has correct descending sequence hierarchy (A)class, division, order, family (C)order, family, class, division (B)division, class, order, family (D) family, order, class, division 7.In Solanum tuberosum, Solanum represents. (A)Family (B) Genus (C) Order (D) Species 8.Which among the following is an order ? (A)Malvales (B) Polypetalae. (C) Angiospermae (D) Hibiscus 9.The basic unit of classification is (A)genus (B) species (C) kingdom (D) family 10.Biological concept of species was given by (A)Stanley (B) Hershey and chase. (C) Darwin (D) Adolf mayer 11.Modem concepts of species was given by (A)Charles Darwin (C) Ernst Mayer (B)Carolus Linnaeus (D) H.L.Lam 12.Binomial nomenclature was published in (A)Systema Naturae (C) Species Plantarum (B)Genera Plantarum (D) Historia Plantarum 13.Plants were given Latin names because (A)Latin is a simple language (B)It is fashionable to talk in an ancient language (C)Latin is ancient language (D)none of these 14.A taxonomic group of closely related genera is known as (A)species (B) order (C) family (D) class F.Y.J.C Science 4 Diversity in Organisms

  5. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 15.Group of individuals which resemble closely in structure as well as functions is called (A)genus (B) species (C) family (D) order 16.Highest category of taxonomy is (A)species (B) class (C) order (D) kingdom 17.The first botanist who started giving scientific names to organisms is (A)Linnaeus (C) Hutchinson (B)R.H. Whittaker (D) Benthem and Hooker 18.Binomial nomenclature consists of two names (A)genus and family (C) family and genus (B)genus and species (D) species and variety 19.The scientific names are given in (A)Latin (B) Sanskrit (C) English (D) Hindi 20.In Binomial nomenclature, every organism has (A)two names, one latin, other common (B)two names, one scientific, other common (C)two names by two scientists (D)one scientific name with two words, a generic and specific 21.International code of Binomial nomenclature applies to (A)viruses (B) plants (C) animals (D) both (B) and (C) 22.Identify the correct scientific name of Mango. (A)Mangifera Indica (C) mangifera indica (B)Mangifera indica (D) Mangifera indica 23.Which one of the following do not find place in five-kingdom system of classification? (A)bacteria (B) lichen (C) cyanobacteria (D) viruses 24.Three kingdom system was proposed by (A)Haeckel (B) Whittaker (C) Aristotle (D) Mayer 25.Which organism belongs to kingdom Monera? (A)Cyanobacteria (B) Mushroom (C) Englena (D) Moss 26.In five kingdom classification, unicellular prokaryotes are included in kingdom (A)Protista (B) Fungi (C) Monera (D) Animalia 27.___________ is an example of plant like protists. (A)Dinoflagellates (B) Ustilago (C) Mucor (D) Nostoc 28.In five kingdom classification, the kingdom which includes diatoms, slime moulds and protozoa is (A)monera (B) protista (C) fungi (D) plantae F.Y.J.C Science 5 Diversity in Organisms

  6. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 29.According to five kingdom system of classification, all unicellular eukaryotic organisms are included under (A)kingdom protista (C) kingdom fungi (B)kingdom monera (D) kingdom plantae 30.Fungal cell walls contain (A)pectin (B) chitin (C) suberin (D) cellulose 31.The mode of nutrition in fungi is (A)autotrophic (B) parasitic (C) saprophytic (D) both (B) and (C) 32.The body of a fungus is known as (A)hypha (B) mycelium (C) rhizoid (D) fruiting body 33.The fungi differ from plants in their mode of nutrition. They are (A)autotrophic (B) diazotrophic (C) absorptive (D) ingestive 34.Agaricus belongs to class (A)Deuteromycetes (C) Basidiomycetes (B)Phycomycetes (D) Ascomycetes 35.Fruiting body in basidiomycetes is (A)Basidia (B) Ascocarp (C) Basidiocarp (D) Conidia 36.Whittaker failed to give any place to which of the following in his classification ? (A)Cyanobacteria (B) Slime moulds (C) Virus (D) Bacteria 37.Which pair is mismatched? (A)Prokaryote-viruses (C) Plantae- mosses (B)Protista -Paramoecium (D) Animalia-arthropods 38.All holozoic organisms are included in kingdom (A)plantae (B) fungi (C) protista (D) animalia 39.The cell wall of a plant cell is composed of (A)true cellulose (B) lipoproteins (C) chitin (D) lipids only 40.Lichen is an association of (A)algae and fungi (C) algae and moss (B)bacteria and fungi (D) monocot and fungi 41.Lichen which shows crust like growth is called (A)foliose lichen (B) crustose lichen (C) fruticose lichen (D) none of these 42.In perfumery, the lichen species used are of (A)Cladonia (B) Evernia (C) Usnea (D) Parmelia 43.The fungal component of a lichen is called (A)phycobiont (B) photobiont (C) mycobiont (D) symbiont 44.Out of the following, which is used to prepare litmus paper? (A)Graphis (B) Rocella (C) Usnea (D) Parmelia F.Y.J.C Science 6 Diversity in Organisms

  7. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 45.Acid obtained from lichen is (A)Acetic acid. (C) Sulphuric acid. (B)Usnic. (D) Hydrochloric acid. 46.Plant virus have genetic material (A)DNA (C) both RNA and DNA (B)RNA (D) either DNA or RNA 47.Who was the first to obtain viruses in crystalline form? (A)Beijerink (B) Stanley (C) Mayer (D) Ivanowski 48.Common symptoms due to viral infection include (A)necrosis (C) clearing of veins (B)local lesions. (D) all of these. 49.Viroids are (A)having genetic material DNA (B)having genetic material RNA, surrounded by protein coat (C)having genetic material DNA, surrounded by protein coat (D)having genetic material RNA, not surrounded by protein coat 50.The first viroid discovered was (A)Polio virus (C) Potato spindle tuber viroid (B)Myxo vims (D) Animal viroid  ANSWER TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 1. (B) 2. (B) 3. (C) 4. (A) 5. (D) 6. (B) 7. (B) 8. (A) 9. (B) 10. (C) 11 (C) 12. (C) 13. (C) 14. (C) 15. (B) 16. (D) 17. (A) 18. (B) 19. (A) 20. (D) 21. (D) 22. (B) 23. (D) 24. (A) 25. (A) 26. (C) 27. (A) 28. (B) 29. (A) 30. (B) 31. (D) 32. (B) 33. (C) 34. (C) 35. (C) 36. (C) 37. (A) 38. (D) 39. (A) 40. (A) 41. (B) 42. (B) 43. (C) 44. (B) 45. (B) 46. (B) 47. (B) 48 (D) 49. (D) 50. (C) F.Y.J.C Science 7 Diversity in Organisms

  8. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Plantae INFOMATICA ACADEMY  EXERCISE 1.Give the general characters of Algae with two examples. 2.Enlist the general characters of Pteridophyta with two examples. 3.Give the salient features of Bryophyta with two examples. 4.Enlist the general characters of Angiosperms with two examples. 5.Name various groups of vascular plants. Give one characteristic feature of each group. 6.Differentiate between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. 7.Write a note on Botanical Gardens. 8.Give a brief account of Herbaria. 9.Give an outline of classification of Kingdom Plantae with one example each. 10.Distinguish between Dicotyledonae and Monocotyledonae. 11.Distinguish between Bryophytes and pteridophytes. 12.Give the importance of botanical gardens. 13.Give the importance of herbaria. 14.What are Cryptogams ? 15.Give the salient features of gryptogame. 16.Name the accessory pigments of Algae. 17.Give any two examples of Bryophyta. 18.Who first used the term “Gymnosperms‟? 19.What is meant by heterosporous plants? 20.What do you mean by indirect pollination ? 21.Define the term „Siphonogamy‟. 22.To which group does Ginkgo belong ? 23.Which are the most essential biotic components of the ecosystem? 24.Why are plants called as most essential biotic components of ecosystem? 25.What are the general characteristics of kingdom plantae? 26.Which are the two sub - kingdoms of kingdom plantae? 27.Both gymnosperms and angiosperms bear seeds. But, then why are they classified separately? 28.Distinguish between Cryptogams and Phanerogams. 29.What are phanerogams? State their divisions. 30.Differentiate between red algae and brown algae. 31.Which type of reserved food material is present in algae? 32.Explain in detail the classification of Bryophytes. F.Y.J.C. Science 8 Kingdom Plantae

  9. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 33.Differentiate between the liverworts and moss. 34.What are the structures responsible for vegetative reproduction in Bryophyta? 35.Why Bryophytes are known as “Amphibians of the plant kingdom”? 36.Distinguish between the following. Thallophyta and Bryophyta 37.Which era is regarded as the era or age of pteridophytes? 38.Which plants are vascular cryptogams? 39.Which phase is dominant in the life cycles of Bryophyta and Pteridophyta? 40.Explain the terms apogamy and apospory. 41.Explain briefly the following terms with suitable example. i. Protonema ii. Antheridium ii. Archegonium iv. Sporophyll 42.Write the most important character of gymnosperm. 43.Describe the important characteristics of gymnosperm. 44.Name the tallest and smallest living gymnosperm plant in the world. 45.How pollination takes place in Gymnosperms? 46.Distinguish between Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. 47.Write a distinguishing character of angiosperm. 48.Name the smallest and tallest angiosperm. 49.Which are essential whorls of a flower. 50.What is double fertilization. 51.Write a note on a class dicotyledonae. 52.Write a note on the class monocotyledonae. 53.What is the meaning of botanical garden? List some botanical gardens of India. 54.Enlist important herbaria of India. 55.Which are the processes involve in a herbarium techniques? 56.Write a short note on taxonomic key. 57.Which are the taxonomic aids used in taxonomic studies? 58.Which are the two phases of plant life cycle? 59.Explain the phenomenon of alternation of generation. 60.Which two plant groups show distinct alternation of generation?  MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 1.Unicellular, non-motile alga is (A)Riccia (B) Chlorella (C) Funaria (D) Chlamydomonas 2.Outer cell wall in alga consists of (A)Cellulose (B) Starch (C) Pectin (D) Phycoerythrin F.Y.J.C. Science 9 Kingdom Plantae

  10. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 3.Algae are mostly (A)aquatic (B) parasitic (C) terrestrial (D) saprophytic 4.Bryophytes show leaf like structure in (A)Spirogyra (B) Riccia (C) horn worts (D) mosses. 5.Bryophytes reproduce by vegetative mean through (A)tubers and gemmae (C) formation of gametes. (B)spore formation (D) fragmentation. 6.Which of the following are the amphibians of the plant kingdom? (A)Pteridophytes (B) Bryophytes (C) Gymnosperms (D) Angiosperms 7.Riccia is also called (A)Liverwort (B) Homworts (C) Mosses (D) pteridophytes 8.Bryophytes differ from Pteridophytes in being (A)vascular (B) seeded (C) non-vascular (D) sporophytic 9.Presence of rhizoids in place of the roots is a characteristic feature of (A)Gymnosperms (B) Bryophyta (C) Pteridophyta (D) Angiosperms 10.The fern leaves are known as (A)lamina (B) fronds (C) sporophyll (D) blades 11.Aquatic pteridophyte is (A)Azolla (B) Equisetum (C) Pteris (D) Lycopodium. 12.Which is the dominant phase of pteridophyte ? (A)capsule (B) gametophyte (C) sporophyte (D) embryo 13.In ferns, spores are produced in (A)Oogonium (B) Sporangium. (C) Stomium (D) Archegonium 14.The first vascular plants are (A)algae (B) bryophytes (C) pteridophytes (D) angiosperms 15.Pteridophyta include about _________ genera. (A)100 (B) 170 (C) 210 (D) 400 16.Both homosporous and heterosporous plants are found in _________ group. (A)algae (B) bryophytes (C) pteridophytes (D) gymnosperm 17.The xylem of Pteridophytes contains __________ only. (A)vessels (C) xylem parenchyma (B)tracheids (D) xylem sclerenchyma 18.Gymnosperms and angiosperms are similar in having (A)triploid endosperm (C) fruits (B)naked seeds (D) haploid pollen F.Y.J.C. Science 10 Kingdom Plantae

  11. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 19.The smallest gymnosperm among the following is (A)Wolffia (C) Sequoia sempervirens (B)Zamia pygmaea (D) Taxodium mucronatum 20.Gymnosperms are characterized by the absence of (A)tracheids in xylem (C) heterosporous condition (B)sieve cells in phloem (D) fruit formation 21.Endophytic fungi or mycorrhizae are found in the roots of (A)Cycas (B) Pinus (C) Equisetum (D) Hibiscus 22.In gymnosperm, vegetative reproduction takes place by (A)tuber (B) runner (C) leaf (D) bulbils 23.Ginko biloba are called (A)tallest plant (B) smallest plant (C) living fossils (D) fossils. 24.Pinus produces (A)no seeds (C) no vascular tissue (B)flowers (D) naked seeds in cone. 25.Fruits in angiosperms develop from (A)ovary (B) ovule (C) archegonium (D) strobili 26.In monocotyledons, the leaves (A)arise at the tip of stem only (C) sheath the stem (B)do not sheath the stem (D) shed off. 27.The dicotyledonous leaf show the following venation (A)parallel (C) pinnate parallel (B)palmate (D) reticulate 28.Double fertilization is a rule in (A)pteridophytes (C) bryophytes (B)gymnosperms (D) angiosperms 29.The transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma is called (A)fertilization (C) fragmentation (B)pollination (D) sporulation 30.A characteristic of angiospenns is (A)presence of xylem and phloem (C) presence of photosynthetic leaves (B)presence of tap roots (D) presence of triploid endosperm 31.The type of pollination in angiosperm is (A)self pollination only (C) indirect pollination (B)cross pollination only (D) direct pollination F.Y.J.C. Science 11 Kingdom Plantae

  12. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 32.Monocots generally do not exhibit (A)secondary growth (C) endosperm formation (B)double fertilization (D) pollination 33.Parallel venation is a characteristic feature of (A)Monocotyledons (C) Pteridophytes (B)Dicotyledons (D) Bryophytes 34.Secondary growth is absent in (A)monocotyledons (C) all angiosperms (B)dicotyledons (D) gymnosperms 35.The Lloyd botanical garden is located at (A)Darjeeling (B) Shillong (C) Pune (D) Nainital 36.The National Botanical Garden is located at (A)Delhi (B) Lucknow (C) Mysore (D) Darjeeling 37.The Central National Herbarium is located at (A)Chennai (B) Hyderabad (C) Delhi (D) Kolkata 38.Herbarium is (A)a garden where herbs are cultivated (B)a type of nursery (C)a collection of well dried and nicely preserved plants (D)a collection of well dried and nicely preserved plants which are correctly identified and arranged according to approved system of classification 39.The southern circle herbarium is located at (A)Chennai (B) Coimbatore (C) Madurai (D) Mumbai 40.Distinct alternation of generation is observed in Bryophytes and _________. (A)Algae (B) Pteridophytes (C) Fungi (D) Protists  ANSWER TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 1.(B) 2. (C) 3. (A) 4. (D) 5. (A) 6. (B) 7. (A) 8. (C) 9 (B) 10. (B) 11. (A) 12. (C) 13. (B) 14. (C) 15. (D) 16. (C) 17. (B) 18. (D) 19. (B) 20. (D) 21. (B) 22. (D) 23. (C) 24. (D) 25. (A) 26. (C) 27. (D) 28. (D) 29. (B) 30. (D) 31. (C) 32. (A) 33. (A) 34. (A) 35. (A) 36. (B) 37. (D) 38. (C) 39. (B) 40. (B) F.Y.J.C. Science 12 Kingdom Plantae

  13. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 of Cell INFOMATICA ACADEMY Biochemistry Biochemistry of Cell EXERCISE 1.What are carbohydrates? Give the classification of carbohydrates. 2.What are proteins? Describe different biological functions of proteins. 3.Describe different types of lipids. Add a note on their role. 4.What are nucleic acids? Give a brief account of DNA. 5.What are enzymes? State the general properties of enzymes. OR Describe the important properties of enzymes. 6.Write notes on: (i)Monosaccharides (ii). Derived lipids. (iii) Simple lipids (iv) Cellular pool. 7.Give the role of carbohydrates. OR What role does carbohydrates play in living body. 8.Give classification of proteins. 9.Describe non genetic RNA types. 10.What is the main role of carbohydrates? 11.How amino acids are linked to form a long chain? 12.What are saturated fatty acids? 13.Why plant fats are liquid at room temperature while animal fats are solid? 14.Why purine: pyrimidine ratio is 1: 1 in DNA, while it is not so in RNA ? 15.What is genetic RNA? 16.What is active site of enzyme? 17.Define: i. Cell ii. Cellular pool 18.Define metabolism. Explain the parts of metabolism. 19.What are macromolecules ? Give examples. 20.Name two different kinds of metabolism. 21.Write short notes on: a.Monosaccharides b. Disaccharides c. Polysaccharides 22.What is the general formula of carbohydrates ? 23.Distinguish between monosaccharide and disaccharides. 24.Differentiate between oligosaccharides and polysaccharides 25.What are the three groups of carbohydrates ? 26.Write a note on the properties of proteins. 27.Explain about the formation of a protein molecule. 28.Name the different amino acids that occur in cell. F.Y.J.C. Science 13 Biochemistry of Cell

  14. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 29.Write a note on the properties of proteins. 30.Explain about the formation of a protein molecule. 31.Name the different amino acids that occur in cell. 32.What are lipids? Explain their general properties and composition. 33.How many types of nucleic acid are present in the nucleus? 34.Write the difference between nucleoside and nucleotide. 35.Who proposed the double helix structure of DNA ? 36.Where is DNA located in the eukaryotic cell? What are its functions? 37.Describe the structure of RNA. Also, mention its types. 38.Distinguish between DNA and RNA. 39.Distinguish between m - RNA and r – RNA. 40.Who had coined the term enzyme? Classify enzymes. 41.What are different classes of enzymes? OR Give a classification of enzymes with examples. 42.Discuss the mechanism of enzyme action. 43.Describe the factors affecting enzyme activity. OR Write a note on factors affecting enzyme activity. 44.Write a note on enzyme inhibitors. OR What are non-competitive inhibitors? 45.Define co-factors. Explain it with examples. 46.Write the full form of NADP. 47.Explain the term metabolism 48.Name the two different kind of metabolism. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.Most common constituents of organic compounds found in organisms are (A)C, H, O, P (B) C, H, O (C) C, H, N, P (D) C, H, O, N, P 2.Carbohydrates are composed of (A)carbon (B) hydrogen (C) oxygen (D) all of these 3.If a compound contains 2 monosaccharides, then it is described as (A)derived monosaccharide (C) polysaccharide (B)disaccharide (D) pentose sugar 4.The simplest monosaccharide made up of three carbons amongst the following is (A)erythrose (B) glucose (C) glyceraldehyde (D) ribose 5.In a disaccharide, monomers are linked with each other through (A)peptide bonds (C) glycosidic bonds (B)hydrogen bonds (D) ester bonds F.Y.J.C. Science 14 Biochemistry of Cell

  15. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 6.Deoxyribose sugar is an example of (A)monosaccharide (C) polysaccharide (B)disaccharide (D) simple protein 7.A disaccharide that gives two molecules of glucose on hydrolysis is (A)sucrose (B) maltose (C) lactose (D) none of these 8.Common examples of hexose sugar is/are (A)glucose (B) fructose (C) erythrose (D) both (A) and (B) 9.Which of the following do not give smaller sugar units on hydrolysis? (A)monosaccharides (C) polysaccharides (B)oligosaccharides (D) glycogen 10.Polysaccharides consists of (A)two monosaccharide units (C) many monosaccharide units (B)eight monosaccharide units (D) amino acids 11.Sugar present in milk is (A)fructose (B) lactose (C) galactose (D) sucrose 12.Which of the following releases lot of energy on its breakdown? (A)carbohydrate (B) fat (C) starch (D) protein 13.Proteins are linear polymers of (A)amino acids (C) monosaccharides (B)fatty acids (D) nucleic acids 14.Proteins are formed by the condensation of (A)nucleic acids (B) amino acids (C) fatty acids (D) carbohydrates 15.Find the odd one (A)Adenine (B) Cytosine (C) Thymine (D) Uracil 16.Main constituent of protoplasm is (A)carbohydrates (B) water (C) fats (D) proteins 17.Protein is (A)micromolecule (C) soluble (B)macromolecule (D) specific 18.Cell membranes are made up of (A)proteins (C) lipids and proteins (B)lipids (D) carbohydrates 19.Fatty acids which do not contain double bond between carbon atoms are (A)saturated fatty acids (C) oleic and linoleic acids (B)unsaturated fatty acids (D) linoleic and linolenic acids F.Y.J.C. Science 15 Biochemistry of Cell

  16. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 20.Simple lipids are esters of (A)amino acids (C) phosphorus (B)proteins (D) fatty acids with glycerol 21.The two strands of DNA are (A)similar in nature and complementary (B)anti-parallel and complementary (C)parallel and complementary (D)basically different in nature 22.Nucleotide contains (A)sugar + phosphate (C) sugar + nitrogenous base (B)N-base + phosphate (D) sugar + N-base + phosphate 23.Hair pin like structure is observed in (A)m-RNA (B) t-RNA (C) r-RNA (D) DNA 24.Smallest RNA is (A)t-RNA (B) m-RNA (C) r-RNA (D) not specific 25.Which RNA is present in more amount in the cell? (A)m-RNA (B) t-RNA (C) r-RNA (D) not certain 26.RNA is genetic material in (A)bacteria (C) bacteriophages (B)cyanobacteria (D) plant viruses 27.The enzyme functions best at temperature (A)30° to 50° C (B) 15° to 25° C (C) 20 to 30° C (D) 40 to 50° C 28.Enzymes are made up of (A)carbohydrate (B) proteins (C) lipids (D) nucleic acids 29.__________ was the first to isolate urease in pure crystalline form from the Jack bean extract. (A)W. Kuhne (B) G. Mendel (C) J. B. Sumner (D) both (A) and (C) 30.As temperature changes from 30° to 45° C, the rate of enzyme activity will (A)decrease (C) first increase and then decrease (B)increase (D) first decrease and then increase 31.Out of the following, which is not a property of enzyme? (A)Specific in nature (C) Used up in reaction (B)Proteinaceous (D) Increased rate of biochemical reaction 32.All enzymes are (A)a proteins (B) lipids (C) carbohydrates (D) vitamins F.Y.J.C. Science 16 Biochemistry of Cell

  17. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 33.At high temperature, enzyme gets. (A)denatured (C) slightly activated (B)killed (D) inactivated 34.Find out the incorrect one. (A)All enzymes are specific (C) All enzymes are proteins (B)All enzymes are biocatalysts (D) All proteins are enzymes 35.In which of the following, the ratio of hydrogen and oxygen atoms is 2 : 1? (A)proteins (B) fats (C) oil (D) carbohydrates 36.Majority of cellular enzymes function best at _________ pH. (A)acidic (B) basic (C) neutral (D) strong base 37.The __________ action of enzyme with a substrate is explained by lock & key theory. (A)relative (B) specific (C) random (D) abstract 38.__________ catalyze hydrolysis of ester, ether etc. (A)Lyases (B) Ligases (C) Hydrolases (D) Transferases 39.__________ catalyze interconversions of geometric, optical and positional isomers. (A)Transferases (C) Oxidoreductase (B)Ligeses (D) Isomerases 40.__________ are also known as dehydrogenases. (A)Oxidoreductases (C) Lyases (B)Ligases (D) Transferases  ANSWER TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 1. (B) 2. (D) 3. (B) 4. (B) 5. (C) 6. (A) 7. (A) 8. (D) 9. (A) 10. (C) 11. (B) 12. (B) 13. (A) 14. (B) 15. (A) 16. (B) 17. (B) 18. (C) 19. (A) 20. (D) 21. (B) 22. (D) 23. (B) 24. (A) 25. (C) 26. (D) 27. (A) 28. (B) 29. (C) 30. (C) 31. (C) 32. (A) 33. (A) 34. (D) 35. (D) 36. (C) 37. (B) 38. (C) 39 (D) 40. (A) F.Y.J.C. Science 17 Biochemistry of Cell

  18. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 Cell Division Cell Division INFOMATICA ACADEMY  EXERCISE 1.Give brief account of somatic cell division. OR Describe brief account of somatic cell division. 2.Describe the various phases of meiosis I. Describe prophase-I of meiosis. 3.Distinguish between equational division and reduction division. 1.Give graphic representation of cell cycle. 2.Explain why interphase is now called preparatory phase. 3.Sketch and label Metaphase I of animal cell. 4.Sketch and label cytokinesis of plant cell. 5.Give significance of mitosis. 6.Distinguish between cytokinesis in plant and animal cell. OR How does cytokinesis in plant cells differ from that in animal cells? 7.Sketch, label and describe zygotene. 8.What is crossing over? Give its significance. 9.Distinguish between anaphase of mitosis and anaphase I of meiosis. 1.Define cell cycle. 2.Which is the most significant event during prophase-I? 3.What is synapsis? Describe synapsis. Draw diagram to illustrate your answer. 4.What are chiasmata? OR Describe chiasmata. Draw diagram to illustrate your answer. 5.During which stage disjunction taken place? 6.What happens during diakinesis? 7.What are homologous chromosomes? 8.How does every cell arise from the pre-existing cell? 9.What is cell division? 10.Graphically represent various stages of cell cycle. 11.What is Go (quiescent phase) of cell cycle? 12.Briefly describe the interphase. OR 13.Describe the events taking place during interphase. 14.Which phase is called synthetic phase? 15.Though interphase is described as a ‘resting phase’, it is not so. Give scientific reason. 16.Give the significance of cell cycle. F.Y.J.C. Science 18 Cell Division

  19. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 17.What are the types of cell division in eukaryotes? 18.Write a short note on amitosis. 19.In which cells amitosis takes place? 20.Define mitosis. 21.Who coined the term mitosis? 22.What is karyokinesis? 23.What happens in metaphase? 24.What happens in metaphase? 25.What is astral and anastral mitosis? 26.In which cells astral mitosis takes place? 27.Which are the four types of fibres that make the kinetic spindle in anaphase? 28.Give reasons: i.Mitosis often called as somatic cell division. ii.Mitosis is also known as equational division. iii.Mitosis is called centric in animal cells and acentric in plant cells. iv.Animal cells show astral mitosis whereas plant cells show anastral mitosis. 29.Answer in just one word: i.The division of cytoplasm is called: ii.Nuclear division is known as: 30.Which type of cell division helps in the process of regeneration? 31.Distinguish cytokinesis from karyokinesis, 32.Define meiosis. 33.Write the general characteristics of meiosis. 34.By which type of cell division genetic recombination takes place? 35.Enlist the various stages in meiosis. OR State the various stages of meiosis. 36.Describe bivalent. Draw diagram to illustrate your answer. 37.Define disjunction. 38.Describe the various stages of meiosis II. 39.How many cells are produced at the end of meiosis? 40.Give a diagrammatic representation of meiosis. 41.By which type of cell division genetic recombination takes place? 42.Name the stage of cell cycle at which one of the following events occur. i.Chromosomes are moved to spindle equator. ii.Centromere splits and chromosomes separate. iii.Pairing between homologous chromosomes takes place. iv.Crossing over between homologous chromosomes takes place. F.Y.J.C. Science 19 Cell Division

  20. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 43.Distinguish between: A.Equational division and Reduction division. OR Mitosis and Meiosis. B.Meiosis I and Meiosis II. 44.Give reasons: Meiosis is known as reductional division. 45.Write the significance of meiosis. 46.Analyze the events during every stage of cell cycle and notice how the following two - parameters change: i.Number of chromosomes (N) per cell ii.Amount of DNA content (C) per cell  MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.Cell cycle includes (A)Cell growth (C) Mitosis (B)DNA synthesis (D) All of these 2.Interphase is also called as (A)Synapsis (C) Telophase (B)Preparatory phase (D) Developmental stage 3.The loss of control at Go leads to (A)resting phase (C) death of an organism (B)normal growth and development (D) uncontrolled division as in tumor 4.Which of the following is called post-mitotic gap phase? (A)Interphase (B) S-phase (C) G2 phase (D) G1 phase 5.Replication of DNA takes place during (A)prophase (B) S-phase (C) G2 phase (D) Interkinesis 6.Anastral mitosis is common in (A)invertebrates (C) both (A) and (B) (B)vertebrates (D) higher plants 7.Which part of the cell disappears during mitosis? (A)Plasma membrane (C) Plastid (B)Nucleolus (D) None of these 8.During metaphase, chromosomes (A)become short and thick (C) duplicate and divide (B)get arranged at the equator (D) move to the respective poles 9.Chromosomes move to the respective poles due to the contraction of (A)inter-zonal fibres (C) inter-polar fibres (B)chromosomal fibres (D) astral rays F.Y.J.C. Science 20 Cell Division

  21. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 10.Reappearance of nucleolus is during (A)telophase (B) prophase (C) cytokinesis (D) inter-kinesis 11.Which of the following is the shortest phase? (A)metaphase (B) anaphase (C) interphase (D) S-phase 12.Which of the following is present between meiosis I and meiosis II? (A)Cytokinesis (B) Prophase II (C) Interkinesis (D) Telophase II 13.Genetic crossing over usually takes place during (A)meiosis I (B) mitosis (C) meiosis II (D) mitosis & meiosis I 14.The prophase I of the meiotic division has ___________ sub-stages. (A)two (B) three (C) five (D) six 15.Prophase I is the ___________ stage of meiotic division. (A)longest (B) shortest (C) tallest (D) least complicated 16.The crossing over takes place in the ___________ stage. (A)leptotene (B) zygotene (C) pachytene (D) diplotene 17.The cytogenetic event/s which occurs during prophase I is (A)synapsis (C) chiasma formation (B)crossing-over (D) all of these 18.In which of the following, nucleolus is almost not visible? (A)Leptonema (B) Zygonema (C) Pachynema (D) Diakinesis. 19.Points at which crossing over has taken place between homologous chromosomes are called (A)chiasmata (C) centromeres (B)synaptonemal complexes (D) telomere 20.Recombinations of parental characters are due to (A)chiasma (B) synapsis (C) linkage (D) crossing over 21.During which phase of meiosis tetrads are formed? (A)anaphase I (B) prophase-II (C) Prophase-I (D) Anaphase-II 22.Synapsis occurs in (A)leptotene (B) pachytene (C) zygotene (D) diplotene 23.Crossing over of chromosomes during meiosis leads to (A)mutation (C) new gene combination (B)sex determination (D) loss of chromosomes 24.Exchange of genetic material takes place during (A)diplotene (B) leptotene (C) zygotene (D) pachytene 25.Crossing over takes place between (A)sister chromatids (C) non-sister chromatids of homologues (B)non-homologous chromosomes (D) any two chromatids F.Y.J.C. Science 21 Cell Division

  22. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 26.Pairing of homologous chromosomes is called (A)crossing over (C) chiasma formation (B)synapsis (D) duplication 27.How many divisions are required to produce 128 gametes? (A)64 (B) 16 (C) 32 (D) 12 28.Which of the following events take place during diplotene stage of prophase I of meiosis? (A)compaction of chromosomes (C) process of crossing over (B)formation of synapsis (D) process of repulsion 29.Karyokinesis is the division of (A)nucleus (B) cytoplasm (C) cell wall (D) pollen grain 30.In the meristematic cell of shoot apex, division will take place by (A)mitosis (B) meiosis (C) amitosis (D) any of these 31.How many mitotic divisions are needed for a single cell to make 128 cells? (A)7 (B) 14 (C) 28 (D) 64 32.During cell division, spindle fibres are attached to (A)telomere (B) centromere (C) chromomeres (D) chromosome 33.In which of the following stages, chromosomes are thin and long thread like? (A)Leptotene (B) Zygotene (C) Pachytene (D) Diplotene 34.Number of cells undergoing meiotic divisions to produce 124 microspores in angiosperm is (A)62 (B) 31 (C) 124 (D) 8 35.During telophase (A)nuclear membrane is formed (C) astral rays disappear (B)nucleolus appears (D) all the above three take place 36.Cytokinesis in plant cell takes place by (A)furrowing (C) any one of (A) or (B) (B)cell plate formation (D) none of these 37.Chromosomal morphology is best observed during (A)prophase (B) interphase (C) metaphase (D) telophase 38.Poleward movement of dyads occurs in (A)anaphase of mitosis (C) anaphase II (B)anaphase I (D) all of these 39.The stage of mitosis in which chromosomes begin to separate and move to the two poles of the dividing cell is called (A)prophase (B) metaphase (C) anaphase (D) telophase F.Y.J.C. Science 22 Cell Division

  23. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY  ANSWER TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 1.(D) 2. (B) 3. (D) 4. (D) 5. (B) 6. (D) 7. (B) 8. (B) 9. (B) 10. (A) 11. (B) 12. (C) 13. (A) 14 (C) 15. (A) 16. (C) 17. (D) 18. (D) 19. (A) 20. (D) 21. (C) 22. (C) 23. (C) 24. (D) 25. (C) 26. (B) 27. (C) 28. (D) 29. (A) 30. (A) 31. (A) 32. (B) 33. (A) 34. (B) 35. (D) 36. (B) 37. (C) 38. (B) 39. (C) F.Y.J.C. Science 23 Cell Division

  24. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY Morphology of Flowering Plants Morphology of Flowering Plants  EXERCISE 1.Describe various parts of an angiospermic plant with a well labelled diagram. 2.Describe different modifications of root with suitable examples. 3.Describe the underground modifications of stem. 4.What is aestivation? Describe various types of aestivation. 5.Give a brief account of various types of fruits. 6.Explain with suitable examples the different types of phyllotaxy. Give significance of phyllotaxy. 7.Classify meristems on the basis of their position in plant body and describe the different types. OR Give the classification of meristem according to its position. OR State the location and function of different types of meristems. OR 8.Describe various types of vascular bundles. 9.Give a brief account of water conducting tissue of higher plants. OR Describe the structure of xylem. 10.Sketch, label and describe T.S. of Typical dicot stem. OR With the help of a neat labelled diagram, describe T.S. of dicot stem (sunflower). 11.Differentiate between root and stem. 12.What is phyllotaxy? Give its significance. 13.“Potato is a stem and sweet potato is a root” Justify the statement. 14.Differentiate between actinomorphic and zygomorphic flower. 15.Describe the structure of a typical fruit. 16.Describe racemose type of inflorescence. 17.Describe different types of placentation. 18.Describe vexillary aestivation with a suitable example. 19.Describe the first accessory whorl of the flower. 20.What are true and false fruits ? Explain with examples. 21.Write a note on aggregate fruits. 22.Sketch and lable V.S of mango fruit. 23.Describe sclerenchyma fibres. OR With a suitable diagram describe Sclerenchyma. Add a note on its occurrence and types. Also explain its functions. 24.Describe the living tissue that gives flexible mechanical strength. OR 25.Write a short note on collenchyma. F.Y.J.C. Science 24 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  25. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 26.Enlist characteristics of meristematic tissues. OR Give the characteristics of meristematic tissues. 27.Describe parenchyma in detail. OR Write a note on parenchyma. 28.Sketch and label T.S. of phloem tissue. 29.Write short notes on: a.Pneumatophore b. Stilt roots c. Phylloclade d. Bulbil e. Leaf tendril 30.Enlist various symbols used in writing floral formula. 31.Give the vegetative and floral characters (two each) of family Fabaceae. 32.Define the following terms: a.Placentation b. Actinomorphic flower c. Zygomorphic flower d. Perigynous flower e. Apocarpous pistil 33.Why stilt roots are present in monocots like maize and jowar ? 34.Why phylloclade of Opuntia is thick and fleshy? 35.What are tendrils ? 36.Why vascular bundles of dicot stem are described as conjoint, collateral and open 37.What is polyarch condition ? 38.What is dorsiventral leaf ? 39.Why concentric bundles are always closed ? 40.What is hard bast ? 41.How is the arrangement of vascular bundles in dicot and monocot stem ? 42.How are the vascular bundles of root ? 43.Which is the most evolved and dominating member of kingdom plantae? 44.How many species of flowering plants are present? 45.Define the following terms. i. Morphology ii. Anatomy 46.Describe various parts of an angiospermic plant with a well labelled diagram. 47.What is root system and shoot system? 48.Give the characteristics of root. 49.Describe various regions of a typical root with the help of a neat labelled diagram. 50.Give normal functions of root. 51.Explain various types of adventitious roots which are modified for mechanical support. 52.Mention the types of root system. 53.Describe tap root or true root system. 54.Describe adventitious or fibrous root system. F.Y.J.C. Science 25 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  26. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 55.Differentiate between Tap root system and Adventitious root system. 56.Differentiate between: Fibrous root and Adventitious root. 57.What is modification of roots? Explain the modification of tap roots for storage. 58.Explain the modification of adventitious roots for food storage. 59.Write a note on epiphytic roots. 60.Why epiphytic roots are also called as assimilatory roots? 61.Give an account of roots modified for absorption. OR 62.Write a note on Parasitic roots/Sucking roots/Haustoria. 63.What are the normal functions of root? 64.What is meant by modification of root? What type of modification of root are found in (A) Banyan tree (B) Turnip (C) Mangrove trees. 65.Define the following terms: i. Stem ii. Bud iii. Apical bud iv. Axillary bud v. Adventitious bud vi. Node vii. Internode 66.Sketch and label a typical stem. 67.What are the primary functions of stem? 68.Write the important characteristics of the stem. 69.Give an account of various types of buds. 70.What are the various modifications shown by stem? 71.Explain various sub-aerial modifications of stem. 72.Describe various aerial modifications of stem. 73.Describe the modifications of stem with suitable examples. 74.What are cladodes? 75.Give the characteristics of leaf. 76.Give an account of various parts of a typical dicot leaf. 77.What is venation? Write its types and add a note on significance of venation. 78.Define simple leaf and Compound leaf. 79.What are the two types of compound leaves? 80.How is pinnately compound leaf different from a palmately compound leaf? 81.Give an account of leaf spines. 82.Write a note on leaf hook, 83.Write a note on phyllode. 84.How do various leaf modification help plants? 85.Write the primary functions of leaf. 86.Distinguish between phylloclade and phyllode. 87.Define inflorescence and state its types. 88.Explain cymose inflorescence. F.Y.J.C. Science 26 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  27. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 89.Define the term inflorescence. Explain the basis for the different types of inflorescence in flowering plants. 90.Write the significance of inflorescence. 91.Differentiate between racemose and cymose inflorescence. 92.Define flower. Describe structure of a typical flower and mention important functions of each part. OR What is a flower? Describe the parts of a typical angiospermic flower. 93.Explain the classification of flowers based on the position of ovary in the flower or insertion of floral leaves. OR Describe the arrangement of floral members in relation to their insertion on thalamus. 94.Write the functions of i. Calyx ii. Corolla 95.What are unisexual and bisexual flowers? 96.What is hermaphrodite flower? 97.Which whorls are essential floral whorls? What functions do they serve? 98.What is adelphy? 99.Write a note on „Adelphy‟ in stamens. 100.Write the structural characteristics of anther. 101.Define syngeny. 102.What is a connective? 103.Define the following terms: i. Aestivation: ii. Placentation: iii. Actinomorphic flower: iv. Zygomorphic flower: v. Superior ovary: vi. Perigynous flower: vii. Apocarpous pistil: viii. Irregular flower/Asymmetrical flower: vii. Epipetalous stamens: viii. Syncarpous gvnoecium: ix. Apocarpous gynoecium: 104.Classify flowers on the basis of symmetry. 105.Differentiate between: Apocarpous and syncarpous ovary. 106.Justify the following statements on the basis of external features: 107.Define fruit. 108.What are parthenocarpic fruits? 109.With suitable diagram give an account of composite or multiple fruits. 110.Define seed 111.Describe the structure of a dicotyledonous seed. OR Draw a labelled diagram of gram seed. 112.Describe the structure of a monocotyledonous seed. OR Draw the labelled diagram of V.S of maize grain. F.Y.J.C. Science 27 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  28. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 113.Define floral diagram. 114.In C(5), what does symbol C, number 5 and bracket indicate? 115.Describe the family Fabaceae with suitable floral diagram. OR Take one flower of family Fabaceae and write its essential description. Also draw their floral diagrams after studying them. 116.Give the economic importance of family Fabaceae. 117.Describe the family Solanaceae with suitable floral diagram. OR 118.Take one flower of family Solanaceae and write its essential description. Also draw their floral diagrams after studying them. 119.Give the economic importance of family solanaceae. 120.Describe the family Liliaceae with suitable floral diagram. 121.Give the economic importance of family Liliaceae. 122.Write the floral formula of a actinomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous flower with five united sepals, five free petals, five free stamens and two united carpels with superior ovary and axile placentation. 123.Define the following: 1. Tissue 2. Meristematic tissue: 3. Simple tissues 4. Complex tissues 5. Permanent tissues 6. Aerenchyma 7. Primary xylem 8. Secondary xylem 124.Which is the most important characteristics of meristematic tissue? 125.Give the classification of Meristems on the basis of origin and development. 126.What is the function of inter-calary meristem? 127.Classify meristems on the basis of functions. 128.Give the functions of meristem. 129.Which are complex permanent tissues? 130.Why are xylem and phloem called complex tissue? 131.Write the characteristic features of permanent tissues. 132.What is the function of aerenchyma? 133.Which cells are also called stone cells? 134.Describe the structure of phloem. OR Sketch and label. T.S. of phloem tissue 135.Differentiate between xylem and phloem. 136.In which type of vascular bundle secondary growth can take place? 137.What is concentric vascular bundle? 138.With the help of a neat labelled diagram, describe the anatomy of a dicot root. 139.With the help of a neat labelled diagram, describe the T.S. of a monocot root. 140.Distinguish between anatomy of dicot and monocot roots. F.Y.J.C. Science 28 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  29. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 141.With the help of a neat labelled diagram, describe the structure of monocot stem. 142.Draw illustrations to bring out the anatomical difference between: a.Monocot root and dicot root b.Monocot stem and dicot stem 143.With the help of a neat labelled diagram, describe the internal structure of dorsiventral leaf. 144.With the help of a neat labelled diagram, describe the anatomy of isobilateral leaf. 145.What is the difference between dorsiventral and isobilateral leaf?  MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.Roots are described as adventitious depending upon their (A)anatomy (C) function (B)origin (D) position (aerial or underground) 2.A fibrous root system is best adapted to perform which of the following functions? (A)Storage of food (B)Transport of water and organic food (C)Absorption of water and minerals from (D)Anchorage of the plant into the soil 3.Adventitious roots develop from (A)radicle (B)any part of the plant body except the radicle (C)flower (D)embryo 4.In sweet potato, food is stored in (A)roots (B) stem (C) leaves (D) petiole 5.The root system grow out from the (A)plumule of the embryo (C) embryo of the seed (B)radicle of the embryo (D) all of these 6.The conical root of carrot is a (A)fibrous root (C) adventitious root (B)tap root (D) haustorial root 7.Pneumatophores are found in the plants growing in (A)swamps (B) alpine region (C) foot hills (D) along the river banks 8.When the root is swollen in the middle and tapers at both ends, it will be called as (A)tuberous root (C) conical root (B)fusiform root (D) napiform root F.Y.J.C. Science 29 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  30. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 9.A spongy tissue called velamen is present in (A)breathing roots (C) tuberous roots (B)parasitic roots (D) epiphytic roots 10.Pneumatophores are helpful in (A)protein synthesis (C) transpiration (B)respiration (D) carbohydrate metabolism 11.Stilt roots are (A)primary roots (C) secondary roots (B)adventitious roots (D) tap roots 12.Which of the following is not a food storage modification of stem? (A)Stolon (B) Corm (C) Tuber (D) Bulb 13.Total stem parasite is (A)Cuscuta (B) Loranthus (C) Rafflesia (D) Viscum 14.The primary function of stem is (A)to bear and expose leaves to sunlight (B)to anchor the plant in soil (C)to absorb water and mineral salts from the soil (D)to help in vegetative reproduction 15.The stem modified to perform the function of leaf and with many intemodes is called (A)phylloclade (B) cladode (C) offset (D) phyllode 16.Pulvinus leaf base is present in (A)mango (B) jowar (C) banana (D) banyan 17.The axillary buds arise (A)at the end point of stem tip (B)between leaf lamina and stem axis (C)below leaf lamina and stem axis (D)at leaf margins 18.Corm is (A)a horizontal underground stem (B)an underground root (C)an underground vertical stem (D)an aerial stem modification 19.Sweet potato is a modification of (A)leaf (C) tap root (B)adventitious root (D) stem 20.Which one of the following is not related to corm? (A)Nodes (B) Internodes (C) Scaly leaves (D) Tunicates F.Y.J.C. Science 30 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  31. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 21.Phylloclade is the modification of (A)leaf (B) stem (C) petiole (D) root 22.The edible portion in a fresh onion comprises (A)leaf bases (C) swollen stem (B)buds and leaf bases (D) disc-like stem 23.A rhizome differs from corm in its (A)thickness (C) direction of growth (B)basic organization (D) nature of leaves 24.The tendrils of sweet pea plant are modified (A)axillary buds (C) terminal leaflets of a compound leaf (B)stipules (D) aerial roots 25.In which of the following the stem is very much reduced? (A)Bulb (B) Rhizome (C) Corm (D) Phylloclade 26.Eyes in potato tubers represent (A)scars (B) internodes (C) root bases (D) nodes with buds 27.Cladode is the characteristic morphological feature of (A)Asparagus (B) Opuntia (C) Cactus (D) Citrus 28.Modification of petiole into leaf-like structure is called (A)cladode (B)phylloclade (C) phyllode (D) diode 29.The leaves without petiole are called (A)sessile (B) petiolate (C) rachis (D) lamina 30.Flower is best defined as a (A)modified gametophyte (C) vegetative propagule (B)modified shoot (D) modified sporophyll 31.When sepals fall just after opening of the flower, they are termed as (A)persistent (B) caduceus (C) remnant (D) deciduous 32.An important function of flower is (A)secretion of nectar (C) production of offsprings (B)insect pollination (D) aesthetic 33.Non-essential floral parts are (A)corolla and calyx (C) calyx and gynoecium (B)corolla and carpel (D) androecuim and gynoecium. 34.Leaf apex is modified into tendril in (A)Gloriosa (B) Pea (C) Smilax (D) Lathyrus 35.The venation pattern in mango is (A)reticulate unicostate (C) reticulate multicostate (B)parallel unicostate (D) parallel multicostate F.Y.J.C. Science 31 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  32. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 36.In a raceme, the flowers are (A)arranged in a basipetal succession (B)arranged in an aeropetal succession (C)of separate sexes (D)of same sex 37.One of the following is characteristic of cymose inflorescence (A)Centripetal opening of flowers (C) Acropetal succession of flowers (B)Basipetal succession of flowers (D) Simultaneous opening of flowers 38.Racemose inflorescence is found in (A)Jasmine (B) Rose (C) China rose (D) Caesalpinia 39.The axis of the inflorescence is known as (A)Thalamus (B) Peduncle (C) Pedicel (D) Petiole 40.If the penduncle shows indeterminate or indefinite growth producing flowers laterally in an acropetal order i.e., youngest near the apex and older near the base of the inflorescence is (A)racemose (B) cymose (C) mixed (D) specialised 41.When the gynoecium is present at the topmost position of the thalamus, the flower is known as (A)inferior (B) epigynous (C) perigynous (D) hypogynous 42.When the flower is hypogynous, the ovary is said to be (A)inferior (B) superior (C) semi-inferior (D) semi-superior 43.If the ovary is situated at the centre of remaining three whorls is, then it is known as (A)perigynous (B) epigynous (C) hypogynous (D) actinomorphic 44.The part of the seed which forms the shoot at the time of germination is called (A)plumule (B) radicle (C) epicotyl (D) hypocotyl 45.The most characteristic feature of basal placentation is (A)single ovule (C) multilocular condition (B)bilocular condition (D) presence of central axis 46.The mode of arrangement of leaves on the stem and the branch is known as (A)vernalization (B) venation (C) venation (D) phyllotaxy 47.Which one of the following is not a fruit? (A)Tomato (B) Cucumber (C) Pumpkin (D) Potato 48.Pineapple is an example of (A)simple dry fruit (C) aggregate fruit (B)composite fruit (D) simple-fleshy fruit 49.Find the odd one out. (A)alternate (B) whorled (C) marginal (D) opposite F.Y.J.C. Science 32 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  33. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 50.If the margins, sepals and petals do not overlap but they just touch each other, it is described as (A)vexillary (B) valvate (C) imbricate (D) contorted 51.In cucumber, the edible part is (A)mesocarp (C) pericarp and thalamus (B)endocarp (D) pericarp, placenta and seeds 52.Papilionaceous corolla is the characteristic feature of ___________ family. (A)Solanaceae (B) Fabaceae (C) Liliaceae (D) Malvaceae. 53.Brinjal belongs to family (A)Liliaceae (B) Fabaceae (C) Malvaceae (D) Solanaceae 54.__________ family is the characteristic representative of monocotyledonous plants. (A)Solanaceae (B) Fabaceae (C) Malvaceae (D) Liliaceae 55.Meristematic tissues are found in (A)only stems of the plants (C) in all growing tips of the plant body (B)both roots and stems (D) only roots of the plants 56.Outer seed coat is called (A)testa (B) tegmen (C) raphe (D) micropyle 57.Fibres associated with phloem are called as (A)intraxyllary (C) bast fibers (B)sclerenchyma fibres (D) cortical fibres 58.Most active cell divisions occur in cells of (A)xylem (C) apical meristem (B)phloem (D) sclerenchyma 59.Meristematic cells contain (A)thin homogenous cell wall (C) large nuclei (B)dense cytoplasm (D) all of these 60.Primary tissues of a plant (A)add to the length of roots and shoots (B)add to the diameter of existing roots and shoots (C)are only in the embryo (D)are only in the seedling 61.Collenchyma differs from sclerenchyma in (A)retaining protoplasm at maturity (B)having thick walls (C)having inside lumen (D)being dead F.Y.J.C. Science 33 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  34. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 62.Generally, plant cell wall is made up of (A)cellulose and pectin (C) chitin (B)only cellulose (D) murein 63.The characteristic feature of meristematic tissue is (A)large sized cells (C) presence of mucilage (B)thin cell walls (D) presence of vacuoles 64.One thing that is common between sclerenchyma and collenchyma is (A)to provide support (C) help in buoyancy (B)help in material transport (D) conduction of water and minerals 65.Which of the following tissues is with dead thick-walled cells without intercellular spaces? (A)parenchyma (B) collenchyma (C) sclerenchyma (D) phloem 66.Parenchyma has (A)inter cellular spaces and uniform thickening (B)deposition on comers (C)deposition at angles (D)deposition in forms of bands 67.Thickening of collenchyma are due to (A)lignin and pectin (C) cellulose (B)pectin and hemicellulose (D) cellulose and pectin 68.The cells which have lignin at comers are (A)parenchyma (B) collenchyma (C) sclerenchyma (D) none of these 69.Lignified cell wall is the characteristic feature of (A)phloem cells (B) epidermal cells (C) cambial cells (D) xylem cells 70.Dead cells that serve a mechanical function are called (A)sclerenchyma (C) wood parenchyma (B)companion cells (D) collenchyma. 71.In which of the following characters, a monocot root differs from dicot root? (A)open vascular bundle (C) radial vascular bundles (B)large pith (D) scattered vascular bundles 72.Sieve tubes are components of (A)xylem (B) phloem (C) parenchyma (D) sclerenchyma 73.Hypodermis is collenchymatous in (A)monocot stem (C) both (A) and (B) (B)dicot stem (D) monocot root 74.Lysigenous cavity filled with water is present in (A)dicot stem (B) monocot stem (C)monocot root (D) dicot root F.Y.J.C. Science 34 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  35. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 75.Lignin is the important constituent in cell wall of (A)parenchyma (B) meristem (C) phloem (D) xylem 76.Apical meristem, intercalary meristem and lateral meristem are differentiated on the basis of (A)Development (B) function (C) origin (D) position 77.Conduction of water occurs through (A)parenchyma (B) sclerenchyma (C) xylem (D) phloem 78.The vascular bundle in a dicot stem are (A)collateral and open (C) bicollateral and open (B)radial (D) collateral and closed 79.Vascular bundles of dicot root are (A)radial exarch (C) conjoint exarch (B)radial endarch (D) conjoint endarch 80.The tissue responsible for translocation of food material is (A)xylem (B) cambium (C) parenchyma (D) phloem 81.Xylem and phloem are described as (A)meristematic tissues (C) simple permanent tissues (B)storage tissues (D) complex permanent tissues 82.The tissue which is present in between xylem and phloem of stem is called (A)apical meristem (C) vascular cambium (B)pericycle (D) cork cambium 83.Find the odd one out (A)phloem (B) collenchyma (C) sclerenchyma (D) parenchyma 84.Which of the following give mechanical strength to the plant? (A)xylem (B) parenchyma (C) sclerenchyma (D) both(A) and (C) 85.In a dicot stem, the vascular bundle is (A)radial (B) concentric (C) closed (D) collateral 86.In collateral vascular bundle, (A)xylem is outside and phloem is inside (B)phloem is towards periphery and xylem is towards centre (C)xylem is surrounded by phloem (D)xylem and phloem lie side by side in different radii 87.Generally, the pith consists of (A)chlorenchyma (B) sclerenchyma (C) parenchyma (D) xylem 88.Vessels are present in (A)all plants (B) spermatophyte (C) augiosperm (D) dicots F.Y.J.C. Science 35 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  36. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY  ANSWER TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION l. (B) 2. (D) 3. (B) 4. (A) 5. (B) 6. (B) 7. (A) 8. (B) 9. (D) 10. (B) 11. (B) 12. (A) 13. (A) 14. (A) 15. (A) 16. (A) 17. (B) 18. (C) 19. (B) 20. (D) 21. (B) 22. (A) 23. (C) 24. (C) 25. (A) 26. (D) 27. (A) 28. (C) 29. (A) 30. (B) 31. (B) 32. (C) 33. (A) 34. (A) 35. (A) 36. (B) 37. (B) 38. (D) 39. (B) 40. (A) 41. (D) 42. (B) 43. (A) 44. (A) 45. (A) 46. (D) 47. (D) 48. (B) 49. (C) 50. (B) 51. (D) 52. (B) 53. (D) 54. (D) 55. (C) 56. (A) 57. (C) 58. (C) 59. (D) 60. (A) 61. (A) 62. (A) 63. (B) 64. (A) 65. (C) 66. (A) 67. (B) 68. (B) 69. (D) 70. (A) 71. (B) 72. (B) 73. (B) 74. (B) 75. (D) 76. (D) 77. (C) 78. (A) 79. (A) 80. (D) 81. (D) 82. (C) 83. (A) 84. (D) 85. (D) 86. (B) 87. (C) 88. (C) F.Y.J.C. Science 36 Morphology of Flowering Plants

  37. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 nd Mineral Mineral INFOMATICA ACADEMY Plant Water Relations a Plant Water Relations and Nutrition Nutrition  EXERCISES 1.Describe root regions and structure of root hair. 2.Explain active absorption of water. OR Describe the mechanism of water absorption by plants. 3.With the help of diagram explain the two pathways of water across the root cells. OR Explain the two pathways of water across the root cells. OR Write about the apoplast and symplast ways of water movement into the plant body. 4.Describe mechanism of ascent of sap with the help of cohesion tension theory. OR Give an account of cohesion tension theory of Dixon. OR Describe transpiration pull model of water transport in plants. 5.Explain the role of any two macro nutrients and any two micro nutrients and their deficiency symptoms. OR Describe the role and deficiency symptoms of any one macronutrients. 6.Describe the course of translocation of organic sap and its mechanism. 7.Give an account of stomatal transpiration. OR Explain the process of stomatal transpiration. 8.“Transpiration is a necessary evil”. comment. 9.Explain the terms. a)Water potential d) Plasmolysis b)Osmosis e) Diffusion c)Imbibition f) DPD 10.Distinguish between: a)Semi permeable and selectively permeable membrane. b)Diffusion and osmosis c)Active and passive absorption d)Evaporation and Transpiration 11.What is transpiration? Give its significance. OR What are the beneficial and harmful effect of transpiration? 12.Describe in brief the three types of transpiration. 13.With labeled diagram describe the structure of stomata. 14.Describe the role and deficiency symptom of any one macronutrients. F.Y.J.C. Science 37 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  38. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 15.Explain the concept of permeability. 16.What is apoplast pathway? 17.Define transpiration. 18.Enlist essential elements. OR Name the various essential elements for the growth of plants. 19.What is hydroponics? 20.Why micronutrients are required in very small amount ? 21.Explain in brief about the process of water and mineral absorption in plants. 22.Name the main source of water for plants. 23.Classify the various types of water present in the soil. 24.Which is the only water available for the plants for absorption? 25.Define imbibition and diffusion. How do these processes help in absorption of water? OR Explain the role of imbibition and diffusion in absorption of water. 26.Write a note on facilitated diffusion. 27.Differentiate between Imbibition and Diffusion 28.Define symport, antiport and uniport transport of molecules. 29.Why do wooden doors and windows swell during rainy season? 30.Explain the term “Diffusion Pressure”. 31.Define osmosis. What are the types of osmosis? OR What is endosmosis? 32.Write the significance of osmosis. 33.Define Deplasmolysis. (A) With the help of well labelled diagrams, describe the process of plasmolysis in plants, giving examples. (B) Explain what will happen to a plant cell, if it is kept in a solution having higher water potential? 34.Write a short note on the following: i. Osmotic Pressure (OP) ii. Turgor Pressure (TP) 35.Write a note on Diffusion pressure deficit (DPD). 36.Write a note, on water potential. OR Briefly describe water potential. 37.What happens when a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure is applied to pure water or a solution? 38.Explain why pure water has the maximum water potential? 39.What is permeability? 40.Name the region of the root from where absorption of water occurs. 41.What is symplast pathway? F.Y.J.C. Science 38 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  39. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 42.Differentiate between Apoplast pathway and Symplast pathway. 43.What is active absorption ? 44.What is ascent of sap? 45.Define root pressure and give the name of instrument used to measure root pressure. 46.What is exudation ? 47.Why living roots are essential for root pressure to develop ? OR What role does root pressure play in the water movement in plants? 48.Explain the term Guttation. 49.Why hydathodes are also called as chalk glands? 50.State the objection to cohesion-tension theory. 51.On which principles, transpiration pull theory is based? 52.Write a short note on transpiration pull. 53.Describe a physical demonstration of the cohesion-tension theory with suitable diagram. 54.Discuss the factors responsible for ascent of xylem sap in plants. 55.How much water is lost to the atmosphere by plants? OR What percentage of water is utilized for various activities of plants? 56.Distinguish between cuticular transpiration and stomatal transpiration. 57.Describe the T.S. of leaf in relation to transpiration. 58.Explain the role of K+ ions in or opening and closing of stomata. OR How does opening and closing of stomata take place? OR What causes the opening and closing of guard cells of stomata during transpiration? 59.What is the shape of guard cells in monocots? 60.Which type of transpiration is maximum in plants? 61.Why is transpiration called as energy sapping process? 62.“Water is absolutely essential for life” Explain. 63.What is translocation of organic solutes? 64.Which is the special conducting tissue to translocate food in plants? 65.Which part of plant is referred as the supply end and sink end? 66.Explain Munch hypothesis theory of translocation of organic food. OR Explain the pressure flow hypothesis of translocation of sugar in plants. 67.Explain why xylem transport is unidirectional and phloem transport bidirectional? 68.Define inorganic nutrients. 69.What are non-mineral elements and mineral nutrients? 70.How many different types of elements are present in plant? F.Y.J.C. Science 39 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  40. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 71.Define. i. Essential elements ii. Non-essential elements iii. Mineral nutrition 72.Which elements are referred to as critical elements? 73.What are the various criteria for essentiality of elements? 74.“All elements that are present in the plant need not be essential toits survival”, Comment. 75.Explain the role of minerals and their deficiency symptoms. 76.How plants are grown by the technique of hydroponics? 77.Give the advantages of hydroponics. 78.Write a short note on mineral toxicity. 79.Why is purification of water and nutrient salts so important in studies involving mineral nutrition using hydroponics? 80.If a plant shows a symptom which could develop due to deficiency of more than one nutrient, how would you find out experimentally the real deficient mineral element? 81.Define mineral absorption. 82.In which form the minerals are absorbed? 83.Explain the various methods of absorption of mineral ions by root cells. 84.„Mineral absorption is mainly an active process‟. Justify. 85.Define biological nitrogen fixation. 86.Name the free living and symbiotic N2 fixing organisms. 87.Explain the role of Rhizobia in biological nitrogen fixation. 88.What is heterocyst? 89.In which chemical forms nitrogen available to plants and animals? 90.Why we can not use nitrogen present in air directly? 91.Define nitrogen cycle. 92.Give the diagrammatic representation of nitrogen cycle. 93.Give the five main processes that takes place during nitrogen cycle. 94.Explain nitrogen cycle in brief.  MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 1.Which of the following is the major source of water for land plants? (A)Gravitational water (C) Capillary water (B)Hygroscopic water (D) Combined water 2.Wooden doors swell up and get stuck up during rainy season due to (A)endosmosis (B) exosmosis (C) imbibition (D) capillarity 3.Transport of two types of molecules in the same direction is known as (A)Symport (B) Antiport (C) uniport (D) biport F.Y.J.C. Science 40 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  41. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 4.Osmosis occurs through a ___________ membrane. (A)permeable (B) Semipermeable (C) impermeable (D) differentially permeable. 5.For osmosis which of the following is true ? (A)The solute move from dilute to concentrated solution (B)The solvent moves from dilute to concentrated solution. (C)Both dilute and concentrated solutions move in opposite direction (D)Only concentrated solution moves to dilute solution. 6.The movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration is (A)imbibition (B) diffusion (C) osmosis (D) reverse osmosis 7.Shrinkage of protoplasm is (A)transpiration (B) plasmolysis (C) deplasmolysis (D) diffusion 8.The main constituent of cytoplasm is (A)water (B) carbohydrates (C) proteins (D) lipids 9.When a cell cannot absorb more water, the condition is called (A)endosmosis (B) plasmolysis (C) turgidity (D) exosmosis 10.Plasmolysis occurs in plant cells when outer solution is (A)isotonic (B) hypertonic (C) hypotonic (D) mesotonic 11.The main organ of water absorption are (A)root (B) stem (C) leaves (D) flowers 12.The outer wall of root hair is made up of (A)pectin (B) Cytokinin. (C) resin (D) tannin 13.Root hair is derived from __________ cell. (A)Epidermal (B) Cortical (C) Endodermal (D) Pericycle. 14.Root hair will absorb water when external solution is (A)viscous (B) isotonic (C) hypertonic (D) hypotonic 15.Absorption of water involving the activity of roots is called (A)active absorption (C) passive absorption (B)imbibition (D) diffusion 16.Entry of water into root hair cell from soil is because (A)water potential of soil solution is more than root hair cell sap. (B)water potential of soil solution is less than root hair cell sap. (C)water potential both outside and inside root hair is equal. (D)water potential value in soil solution is negative. 17.Which of the following is the first step in water absorption? (A)Imbibition (C) Passive absorption (B)Active Absorption (D) Osmosis F.Y.J.C. Science 41 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  42. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 18.Solution outside a cell has higher concentration than cell sap. Then the solution is (A)isotonic (B) hypertonic (C) hypotonic (D) acidic 19.Water in plants rises through (A)xylem (B) phloem (C) pith (D) cortex 20.Guttation takes place through special glands called (A)xylem (B) chalk glands (C) hydathodes (D) both B and C 21.Cohesive and adhesive forces cause (A)absorption of water (C) discontinuity of water column (B)continuity of water column (D) plasmolysis 22.“Transpiration Pull” is maximum when (A)stomata are open and atmosphere is dry (B)stomata are open and atmosphere is humid (C)stomata are open and soil is dry (D)stomata close due to high blowing winds 23.Cohesion theory of ascent of sap is based on (A)diameter of vessels (B)physical forces between water molecules (C)surface tension (D)pressure of water in roots. 24.Uptake of water at the expense of metabolic energy is known as (A)endosmosis (C) active absorption (B)diffusion (D) passive absorption 25.Who first proposed the cohesion theory ? (A)Dixon and Jolly (C) Bonner (B)Curtis (D) Gold Stone 26.Mutual attraction between H2O molecules is called (A)cohesion (B) adhesion (C) tension (D) pressure 27.Lenticels are present on (A)herbaceous stems (C) leaves (B)woody stems (D) roots 28.In monocot, guard cells are (A)kidney shaped (C) spherical shaped (B)dumb bell shaped (D) oval shaped 29.Stoma is surrounded by two modified epidermal parenchyma cells called (A)Palisade (C) Mesophyll cell. (B)Lenticels (D) Guard cells. F.Y.J.C. Science 42 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  43. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 30.Stoma widens when (A)Turgor pressure is increased (C) Exosmosis occur (B)Wall pressure is decreased (D) Osmotic concentration of guard cells lowers. 31.Guard cells are associated with (A)lenticels (B) hydathodes (C) stomata (D) epiblema 32.Maximum transpiration occurs through (A)stomata (B) cuticle (C) lenticels (D) bark 33.Wilting in plants occurs due to increase in (A)Photosynthesis (C) transpiration (B)photoperiodism (D) osmosis 34.Opening and closing of stomata is due to the (A)hormonal change in guard cells (B)change in turgor pressure of guard cells (C)gaseous exchange (D)respiration 35.In fully opened stomata, guard cells are (A)plasmolysed (B) shrunken (C) turgid (D) flaccid 36.During night time, guard cells (A)swell (C) become flaccid (B)convert starch to sugar (D) increases turgor pressure 37.Importance of transpiration is (A)removal of excess water (B)occurrence of gaseous exchange (C)accelerate downward action of water (D)both (A) and (B) 38.Transpiration is 'unavoidable evil‟ is termed by (A)Curtis (B) Steward (C) Boehm (D) Stocking 39.The statement „transpiration is a necessary evil‟ was made by (A)J. C. Bose (B) Curtis (C) Levitt (D) Wilmer 40.The technique of growing plants in a nutrient solution is called (A)tissue culture (C) hydroponics (B)propagation (D) ascent of sap 41.Movement of food material from leaves to other parts of the plant takes place through (A)xylem (C) both (A) and (B) (B)phloem (D) meristems F.Y.J.C. Science 43 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  44. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 42.The minerals which are required in small amount for the growth of plant are called (A)micronutrients (C) minor elements (B)trace elements (D) all of these 43.The elements which are required in large amount for the growth of plants are (A)macronutrients (C) essential elements (B)major elements (D) all of these 44.Out of the following, which is the constituent of middle lamella? (A)phosphorus (B) potassium (C) calcium (D) nitrogen 45.Critical elements are (A)N, P, K (B) Na, P and Ca (C) N, P, Mg (D) Mn, Fe and Cu 46.Which of the following is a trace element? (A)Mg (B) Nitrogen (C) Sulphur (D) Mn 47.Which of the following is a macronutrient? (A)Ca (B) Mn (C) Zn (D) Mo 48.Nitrogen is an important constituent of (A) carbohydrates (C) proteins (B) lipids (D) polyphosphates 49.Chlorosis results from the deficiency of (A)sodium (B) boron (C) magnesium (D) phosphorus 50.Out of the following, which are essential for the synthesis of chlorophyll? (A)Mg (B) Fe (C) K (D) both (A) and (B) 51.Purines and pyrimidines are (A)nitrogen bases (C) iron bases (B)phosphorus bases (D) calcium bases 52.For maintaining permeability of membranes, the element which is required is (A)Na (B) K (C) Ca (D) Fe 53.Biological nitrogen fixation is done by (A)Nostoc (B) Anabaena (C) Rhizobia (D) all of these 54.In cyanobacteria, ____________ is the site for nitrogen fixation. (A)heterocyst (B) flagella (C) chloroplast (D) cell wall 55.The essential component of DNA and proteins is (A)Nitrogen (B) Magnesium (C) Chlorine (D) Oxygen F.Y.J.C. Science 44 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  45. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY  ANSWER TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 1.(C) 2. (C) 3. (A) 4. (B) 5. (B) 6. (B) 7. (B) 8. (A) 9. (C) 10. (B) 11. (A) 12. (A) 13. (A) 14. (D) 15. (A) 16. (A) 17. (A) 18. (B) 19. (A) 20. (D) 21. (B) 22. (A) 23. (B) 24. (C) 25. (A) 26. (A) 27. (B) 28. (B) 29. (D) 30. (A) 31. (C) 32. (A) 33. (C) 34. (B) 35. (C) 36. (C) 37. (D) 38. (B) 39. (B) 40. (C) 41. (B) 42. (D) 43. (D) 44. (C) 45. (A) 46. (D) 47. (A) 48. (C) 49. (C) 50. (D) 51. (A) 52. (B) 53. (D) 54. (A) 55. (A) F.Y.J.C. Science 45 Plant Water Rel. & Mineral Nutrition

  46. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY Plant Plant Growth and Development Growth and Development  EXERCISE 1.Sketch, label and describe the standard growth curve. 2.Write an account of “Auxins” as growth regulator. OR Describe the properties of Auxin. 3.Give an account of the ripening hormone. OR What is ethylene? Write the source of ethylene. Name the precursor of ethylene. 4.Describe the phases of growth. Add a note on GPG. 5.What are Gibberellins? Enlist the applications of gibberellins. 6.Write an account of Vernalization. 7.What is Photoperiodism? Explain how the plants are classified oR the basis of photoperiods required. 8.Give applications of auxins. OR Give the physiological effects (applications) of Auxins. 9.Explain the role of abscissic acid as a stress hormone. OR Write physiological effects of ABA over plants. 10.Enlist the applications of Ethylene. 11.Write notes on: i)Formative phase ii)Grand period of growth iii)Cytokinins iv)Epigeal germination. v)Viviparous germination. 12.Distinguish between i)Long day plants and Short day plants. ii)Hypogeal germination and Epigeal germination. 13.Write a note on Apical Dominance. 14.Describe hypogeal seed germination. 15.Define SDP and LDP. Give one example of each. 16.Sketch arid label a typical growth curve. 17.Write a note on Avena curvature test. 18.Why the seed germination in castor is described as epigeal? 19.Define seed germination. OR Explain different types of seed germination with suitable examples. 20.What are phytohormones? 21.What are photo-neutral plants? F.Y.J.C. Science 46 Plant Growth and Development

  47. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 22.Why ABA is called strees hormone? OR Why is abscissic acid also known as stress hormone? 23.Why “art of pruning” is practiced by gardners? 24.Define growth. 25.Do non-living objects also show growth? How? 26.Distinguish between the growth of non-living objects to that of the living objects. 27.How does growth takes place in unicellular organisms? 28.Define seed dormancy and give its causes. 29.Which are the methods to break seed dormancy? 30.Where food material is stored during seed germination? 31.Draw neat and labelled diagram of the following. i. Hypogeal germination. ii. Epigeal germination. 32.Enlist the changes taking place during germination. 33.Give the important characteristic of growth. 34.What is sigmoid growth curve? 35.Why in plants, growth curve is always „S‟ shaped? 36.Mention the phases of growth. 37.What is Grand period of growth? 38.Define differentiation. 39.What is dedifferentiation and redifferentiation?OR Define dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. 40.Which are the factors affecting growth? 41.In which phase maximum growth takes place? 42.Define growth rate. 43.Explain arithmetic and geometrical growth. 44.Define absolute growth rate and relative growth rate. 45.Define development and state the factors influencing the development. OR Define Development. 46.Draw a diagram to represent the sequence of the developmental process in a plant cell. 47.What are the characteristics of plant growth regulators. 48.What are the types of plant growth regulators? 49.What are auxins? Where are they synthesized? Name the precursor of auxin. 50.Which auxin is used as weedicide? 51.Give the full forms of given auxins: IAA; NAA; 2,4 - D; 2,4,5 - T 52.What are gibberellins? Write the source of gibberellin. Name the precursor of gibberellin. F.Y.J.C. Science 47 Plant Growth and Development

  48. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 53.Enlist the applications of gibberellins. OR Write the role of Gibberellins. 54.Write about the types of gibberellins. 55.Who discovered gibberellins and how? 56.Write a note on role of cytokinins. 57.What is senescence ? 58.What is Richmond-Lang effect? 59.How does ethylene play significant role in post harvest technology? 60.Which hormone is called stress hormone? 61.Which hormone is also known as anti-gibberellin? Why? 62.Which one of the plant growth regulators would you use, if you are asked to. i.Induce rooting in a twig ii.Quickly ripen a fruit iii.Delay leaf senescence. iv.Induce growth in axillary buds. v.Induce immediate stomatal closure in leaves. 63.What would be expected to happen if, i.GA3 is applied to rice seedlings. ii.Dividing cells stop differentiating. iii.A rotten fruit gets mixed with unripe fruits. iv.You forget to add cytokinin to the culture medium. 64.Who had first used the term photoperiodism? 65.What is critical photoperiod? 66.“Both a short day plant and a long day plant can produce flower simultaneously in a given place”. Comment. 67.Would a defoliated plant respond to photoperiodic cycle? Why? 68.Write the mechanism of photoperiodism. OR Describe the physiology of flowering. 69.Which responses in plants can be induced by light? 70.What is the difference between skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis? 71.Write a short note on phytochrome. 72.What is vernalization? 73.How vernalization was first noticed? 74.Explain the site for vernalization. 75.What are the various conditions involved in vernalization? 76.Explain the process of Vernalization. 77.Which condition is responsible for devernalization? F.Y.J.C. Science 48 Plant Growth and Development

  49. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 78.What do you understand by photoperiodism and vernalization? Describe their significance.  MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 1.The growth of plants differ from that of animals in being (A)localized (B) diffused (C) temporary (D) permanent 2.Growth in non living objects is called (A)extrinsic (B) intrinsic (C) localized (D) rapid 3.Causes of seed dormancy are (A)hard seed coat (C) seed weight (B)immature embryo (D) both (A) and (B) 4.The first step towards plant growth is (A)dormancy (B) germination (C) cell division (D) cell enlargement 5.During seed germination, when cotyledons remain below the ground, then it is called, (A)hypogeal germination (C) viviparous germination (B)epigeal germination (D) oviparous germination 6.When cotyledons are above the ground, germination is (A)epigeal (B) hypogeal (C) vivipary (D) ovipary 7.Which of the following seeds is hypogeal? (A)Rhizophora (B) Castor (C) Tamarind (D) Pea 8.The correct sequence of different phases of growth is (A)Elongation, Formative, Maturation (B)Formative, Elongation, Maturation (C)Differentiation, Elongation, Maturation (D)Maturation, Formative, Elongation 9.In cell enlargement phase, cells elongate due to (A)endosmosis (B) imbibition (C) diffusion (D) plasmolysis 10.The phase in which rate of growth is slow is (A)lag phase (C) exponential phase (B)log phase (D) senescence phase 11.The phase where growth reaches its maximum value is (A)log phase (C) exponential phase (B)lag phase (D) both (A) and (C) 12.Stationary phase is also called (A)lag phase (C) exponential phase (B)log phase (D) steady phase F.Y.J.C. Science 49 Plant Growth and Development

  50. CONTACT: 9821131002/9029004242 INFOMATICA ACADEMY 13.When growth rate is plotted against time, the curve obtained is (A)sigmoid (C) both (A) and (B) (B)S - shaped (D) J - shaped 14.The substances synthesized at the tip of the stem and control growth elsewhere are (A)auxins (B) vitamins (C) enzymes (D) florigen 15.The true natural auxin of higher plants is (A)Indole-3-acetic acid (C) Indole-3-pyruvic acid (B)Indole-3-acetaldehyde (D) Indole-3-nitric acid 16.To promote the growth of lateral branches of a plant (A)auxin is applied to the apical bud (B)auxin is applied to the decapitated shoot tip (C)axillary buds are removed (D)apical bud is removed 17.Which of the following is used for the production of long seedless grapes? (A)auxin (B) cytokinin (C) ethylene (D) gibberellin 18.The auxin used to destroy broad leaf dicots is (A)IAA (B) IBA (C) 2, 4-D (D) 2,4,5-T 19.Which of the following is not a function of auxin? (A)root initiation (C) fruit ripening (B)flower initiation (D) prevention of premature fruit drop 20.Which of the following stimulates growth or cell enlargement? (A)Gibberellin (B) Auxin (C) Cytokimn (D) Ethylene 21.The most widely occuring auxin in plant is (A)IAA (B) NAA (C) IBA (D) 2,4 D 22.Gibberellin is obtained from (A)Gibberella fujikuroi (C) Spirogyra (B)Coconut milk (D) Gibberella chrysogenum 23.Gibberellin was first isolated by (A)Kurosawa (C) Suzuki (B)Yabuta and Sumiki (D) Yelstin 24.The fungus Gibberellin attacked _________ plant. (A)Wheat (B) Rice (C) Lemon grass (D) Tulip 25.Internodal elongation is stimulated by (A)auxins (B) gibberellins (C) cytokinins (D) ABA 26.The elongation of stem by gibberellins is due to (A)elongation of internode (C) both (A) and (B) (B)rapid cell division (D) elongation of node F.Y.J.C. Science 50 Plant Growth and Development