1950’s Cold War Peaceful Coexistence?
Dwight Eisenhower 52-60 • Republican • McCarthyism at its height • Promised to go to Korea himself and end the war
Cautious Approach to Cold War Politics • Negotiate w/ Russia while creating alliances around the world • SEATO • CENTO • NATO (with added re-armed Germany in 1955)
Stalin Out, Khrushchev In • After battling with Malenkov in USSR, Nikita Khrushchev takes control • Destalinization renounces Stalin’s harsh tactics • Seeks to have a “peaceful coexistence” with the west
“New Look” Defense Strategy • Goal: reduce defense spending by: • Increasing nuclear weapons • Decreasing conventional weapons • Increase cheaper, covert missions • EX: Guatemala (54), Iran (53), Vietnam (54)
Ex 1: Iran, 1953 Prime Minister Mossadegh has vote of the people Nationalizes the Anglo-Iranian oil company US/CIA intervenes, created chaos in the country, helps oust Mossadegh and supports the Shah Pahlavi of Iran The Shah is sympathetic to US interests (or can be convinced to be)
Ex2 : Guatemala, 1954 • Arbenz plans to nationalize United Fruit Company land & return to landless(UFC called “el pulpo”) • CIA helps overthrow reform-minded Jacobo Arbenz • Train soldiers in Honduras, support the installation of Armas
Ex 3: Vietnam • US support of Diem • US trainging of Vietnamese against the communists in Vietnam
Brinkmanship • Term coined by Sec. of State John Foster Dulles • Willingness to go to the brink of war (use of threats to make enemy back off) • US promises to use all its force, including nuclear weapons, against any aggressor nation
Arms Race Accelerates • 1955 begins U-2 program; CIA pilots fly over Soviet skies – esp. after “Open Skies” proposal is shot down @ Geneva • Sputnik 1957 sets off the “space race” • Russia’s ICBM in 1957 shows “missile gap” • By 1960, 1 million bomb shelters built by private citizens
MAD! • Mutually Assured Destruction • IR is based on the idea of reciprocity – if we bomb them, they’ll bomb us; • By both sides having bombs, their use is prevented - deterrence
Military Industrial Complex • The sector of the economy that is privately owned, but holds government contracts for weapons and war materiel • Becomes politically, economically influential • Q: Does the M-I complex create/foster the arms race?