american history i unit two n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
American History I Unit Two PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
American History I Unit Two

play fullscreen
1 / 134

American History I Unit Two

229 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

American History I Unit Two

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. American History I Unit Two A New Nation

  2. Causes of the American Revolution • Video Clip

  3. EQ: What were the causes of the independence movement in colonial America? • 1689-1754 France and Great Britain went to war on four occasions in order to become the dominate nation in Europe • Each of these conflicts started in Europe and spilled over to the colonies in America • 1754 last conflict- French and Indian War • Area of dispute was the Ohio Valley- • French used the Ohio River to travel from Lake Ontario to the Mississippi River and down to Louisiana • British land speculators wanted the area to sell to setters for a profit • French built a series of forts in the Ohio Valley to stop the British from claiming the area • Governor of Virginia built a British fort in western Pennsylvania- French took the fort before construction was complete and then built Fort Duquesne on the site • A young George Washington was sent with a force to expel the French

  4. Washington’s troops marched to the Ohio River in the spring of 1754- ran into French troops at Great Meadows • Short battle, Washington retreated, built a stockade – Ft. Necessity- month later larger French force made Washington surrender • Conflict between French and British turned into a world war • 22-year old Washington becomes a hero for courageous attempt to stop the French

  5. Prior to the war- British officials urged the colonies to work together – prepare for the war • Wanted colonists to enter into alliance with the Iroquois (controlled western New York- French would need to pass thru the region to reach the Ohio River) • Delegates from 7 colonies met with Iroquois leaders at Albany, New York, June 1754 • Albany Conference- Iroquois refused alliance but did state they would remain neutral • Colonies agreed Britain should name a supreme commander of all British troops in the colonies • Issued Albany Plan of Union- committee led by Ben Franklin- proposed colonies unite to form a central government- colonies rejected the plan • Albany Plan illustrated an attempt by colonial leaders to join together for their common defense

  6. 1755, General Edward Braddock arrived in Virginia- 1,400 troops- joined with 450 militiamen • Braddock appointed Lt. Colonel G. Washington to serve as his aide • Braddock marched west to attack Ft. Duquesne • Braddock’s troops ambushed by French and Indian forces- Braddock killed- British panic • Washington saved the force from disaster- under fire- rallied the men and organized a retreat • Success of the ambush prompted the Delaware to attack British settlers in western Pennsylvania • For two years, French and Indian War took place along the frontier • 1756 the fighting spread over to Europe- Seven Years War • Slowly the British fleet cut off supplies and reinforcements to the colonies from France • Iroquois, realized British were gaining momentum- pressured the Delaware to end attacks on British settlers

  7. French losing support of Native allies- outnumbered • 1759, British fleet under General James Wolfe sailed to Quebec- capital of New France- defeated French troops protecting the city • British seized Quebec, took control of New France • Fighting continued outside of North America • Spanish joined French in 1761- Britain took Spain’s colonies in Cuba and Philippines • Treaty of Paris- 1763- ended war- French lost power in North America- retained a few small islands • All French territory east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans was given to the British • Spain gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba and the Philippines • To pay Spain for losses, France signed a separate treaty giving the Spanish control of New Orleans and French territory west of the Mississippi

  8. Proclamation of 1763- Spring 1763, Pontiac chief of the Ottawa went to war against British troops • United several native nations, Ottawa, Delaware, Seneca, and Shawnee- attacked forts in the frontier, burned several towns • British troops put down the uprising- • Pontiac’s War was not a surprise for British officials- had expected trouble since 1758- reports of settlers moving into western Pennsylvania in violation of colony’s treaty with Native Americans • British leaders did not want to take on the expense of another war- many British officials were shareholders in fur trading companies- war would disrupt trade • Solution- limit western settlement • October, 1763 King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763 • Line north to south along the Appalachian Mts. colonists could not settle west of the line without government permission • Farmers and land speculators unhappy- wanted access to land

  9. Tax policies • 1763 George Grenville, new Prime Minister of Britain and first lord of the Treasury • Grenville had to limit debt and pay 10,000 British troops stationed in North America • Grenville knew colonial merchants were engaged in smuggling, evaded customs duties • Grenville got Parliament to pass laws allowing smugglers to be tried at a vice-admiralty court in Halifax, Nova Scotia • Colonial juries were sympathetic to smugglers • Vice-admiralty courts were run by naval officers • No juries- did not have to follow English Common Law- admiralty cases involved property not people • Colonists objected to having to go to Nova Scotia to prove legality of their property

  10. John Hancock, made rich by the sugar trade, smuggled molasses from French colonies in Caribbean- tried in vice-admiralty court- defended by John Adams • Adams argued the use of vice-admiralty courts denied colonists rights as British citizens

  11. Sugar Act • Grenville, American Revenue Act, 1764- known as Sugar Act • Raised tax rate on imports of raw sugar and molasses- new taxes on silk, wine, coffee, pimento, and indigo • Colonial merchants complained to Parliament- Sugar Act hurt trade • Colonists angry- violation of traditional English rights- property seized presumed illegal until proven legal- seizures took place without due process (proper court procedure)- in some cases prevent lawsuits by merchants whose goods had been seized improperly • Pamphlets circulated in the colonies protesting the Sugar Act • James Otis argued that Parliament could impose taxes to regulate trade, taxing Americans to pay for British programs was different, colonies had no representation in Parliament • Otis’s arguments led to “No Taxation Without Representation” • Sugar Act remained in effect- Grenville passed the Currency Act 1764 slow inflation, banned the use of paper money in the colonies (paper money lost value) • Colonial farmers and artisans liked paper money because it lost value quickly

  12. Use paper money to repay loans- money had less value when loan repaid than when the money was borrowed- loans easier to repay

  13. Stamp Act • Grenville, Sugar Act not enough revenue to cover Britain’s expenses in America • Asked Parliament to pass the Stamp Act • March 1765- taxed printed materials- newspapers, pamphlets, posters, wills, mortgages, deeds, licenses, diplomas, playing cards • This was not a tax on trade, it was a direct tax- first direct tax levied by Parliament on the colonists • Stamp Act generated debate in the colonies, spring 1765 • Patrick Henry’s speeches led to the Virginia House of Burgesses to pass resolutions declaring Virginians were entitled to rights as British citizens and could only be taxed by their own representatives • Other colonies passed similar resolutions

  14. Summer 1765- sons of liberty organized demonstrations- intimidated stamp distributors • August, Boston, effigies hung to represent several British officials- including the stamp agent of Boston • October, 1765 9 colonies sent representatives to the Stamp Act Congress- issued a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, drafted by John Dickinson • Declared taxation depended upon representation, only body to tax was the colonial representatives not Parliament • Also petitioned King George III for relief and asked Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act • Stamp Act in effect November 1, 1765 • Colonial response; ignored the law- boycott of British goods • Substituted goods available in US for British goods • New York, 200 merchants signed nonimportation agreements • Not to buy British made goods until the Stamp Act was repealed

  15. Boycott hurt British merchants • Thousands of British workers lost jobs • Merchants could not collect monies owed them from the colonies • Protests in England and the colonies- Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766 • To assert authority, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act- Parliament had the power to make laws for the colonies

  16. Townshend Acts • England experienced financial problems • Protests in England made Parliament lower property taxes- still had to pay for troops in America • 1767, Charles Townshend, chancellor of the Exchanger introduced new taxes • Townshend Acts- Revenue Act, customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported by colonies • Violators tried in vice-admiralty courts- no juries, did not follow common law • Allowed officials to take private property under certain circumstances without following due process • Revenue Act authorized writs of assistance- general search warrant- customs officials could enter any location during the day to look for smuggling activity

  17. Colonists upset with Townshend Acts • Winter 1767-1768 John Dickinson published essays, Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania • Reasserted colonial assemblies elected by colonists held the right to tax • Called for colonists to bound together to form one body politic to resist Townshend Acts • Month after Dickinson’s first essay published- Massachusetts assembly began organized resistance against Britain • Sam Adams with James Otis February 1768 drafted a circular letter to be circulated to other colonies criticizing the Townshend Acts • British demanded Massachusetts withdraw the letter- Massachusetts assembly refused • British government ordered the assembly of Massachusetts dissolved • August 1768 Boston and New York merchants signed nonimportation agreements- not import goods from Britain • Philadelphia merchants joined boycott

  18. May 1769 Virginia House of Burgesses passed Virginia Resolves- on the House of Burgesses could tax Virginians • Britain dissolved the House of Burgesses- G. Washington, Patrick Henry, T. Jefferson called assembly members into convention- passed nonimportation law stopped sale of British goods in Virginia • Boycott spread, Americans stopped drinking British tea, buying British cloth • Women’s groups, Daughters of Liberty spun own cloth- called homespun • Wearing homespun became sign of patriotism • Sons of Liberty encouraged people to join boycotts- 1769 colonial imports from Britain declined dramatically from 1768 levels

  19. British response to “no taxation without representation” • Virtual Representation, • - colonists were English citizens • -English citizens elected members of Parliament • -colonists were represented in Parliament

  20. Boston Massacre • Video clip

  21. Fall 1768, more violence in Boston • 1,000 British troops (redcoats) in Boston • Crowds jeered and harassed the British troops • March 5, 1770- crowd of colonists taunted and threw snowballs at British troops guarding the customs house • Troops fired on the colonists, five died, six wounded- first colonist to die was Cripus Attucks (of Native and African descendent) • Shootings called the Boston Massacre • Colonial newspapers made it appear the British were tyrants, willing to kill those who stood up for their rights • News of the events in Boston spread quickly • Could have set off a revolution- few weeks after the Boston Massacre Parliament repealed most of the Townshend Acts, kept one tax on tea to maintain right to tax colonists- allowed colonial assemblies to resume meeting • Temporary peace in Colonial America

  22. Townshend Acts repealed, smuggling resumed • British stationed customs ships along the east coast to intercept smugglers • The Gaspee off the coast of Rhode Island • Rhode Islanders despised the commander of the Gaspee due to search of ships without a warrant- sent crew ashore to take food without payment • June, 1772 the Gaspee ran aground, 150 colonists seized the ship and set it afire • British response, commission sent to investigate with the authority to take suspects to Great Britain for trial • Colonists were angry, violation of right to a trial by jury of peers, Rhode Island’s assembly sent the king a letter and asked to other colonies for help

  23. March, 1773 Virginia House of Burgesses received the letter from Rhode Island, T. Jefferson suggested each colony create a committee of correspondence to open communication with the other colonies about British actions • Committees of correspondence helped unify the colonies and shape public opinion • Helped colonial leaders coordinate resistance plans

  24. Boston Tea Party • May, 1773- Lord North Prime Minister of England- major error- to help the British East India Company which was struggling financially- corrupt management and wars in India- taxes on tea encourage colonial merchants to smuggle in cheaper Dutch tea • British East India Company had 17 million pounds of tea in warehouses- had to sell quickly • Parliament passed the Tea Act 1773- refunded 4/5thd of the taxes the company had to pay to ship tea to the colonies- left only the Townshend Act in place • East India tea could be sold at lower prices than smuggled tea Dutch tea • Allowed East India Company to sell directly to shopkeepers- bypassed American merchants who distributed the tea

  25. American merchants feared they were being forced out of the market for tea • October 1773 East India Company shipped 1,253 chests of tea to Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charles Town • Committees of correspondence decided the tea must not be unloaded from ships • First shipment arrived in New York and Philadelphia- colonists forced East India agents to return home with the tea • Charles Town, customs officers took the tea and stored it in a local warehouse, remained there unsold • Boston- December 17,1773- the night before customs officials were to bring the tea ashore- group of 150 men gathered at the Boston dock • George Hewes, struggling shoemaker, among the group- despised the British for questioning him on the street and nonpayment for shoes- witnessed Boston Massacre- dislike became political • Put soot on his face, joined the group- boarded the ships and destroyed the tea • Several thousand cheered the actions as 342 chests of tea went into Boston Harbor • Men were dressed as Native Americans, many knew their identities

  26. Sam Adams and John Hancock were among the group that boarded the ship • Coercive Acts, Boston Tea Party last straw for King George III- informed Lord North, concessions had made matters worse • Spring 1774, Parliament passed four new laws known as the Coercive Acts • Laws were to punish Massachusetts and end colonial challenge to British authority • 1st act, Boston Port Act- closed the port until the city paid for the tea • 2nd act, Massachusetts Government Act, required all council members, judges, and sheriffs in Massachusetts to appointed by the governor, not elected- banned town meetings • 3rd act, Administration of Justice Act, governor could transfer trials of British soldiers and officials to Britain to protect them from American juries

  27. 4th act, Quartering Act, local officials required to provide lodging for British soldiers, in private homes if necessary • Enforcement of acts- 2,000 British troops moved to New England, General Thomas Gage appointed new governor of Massachusetts • Coercive Acts violated traditional English rights- right to trial by jury of peers, right not to have troops quartered in one’s home, king was not to keep a standing army in peacetime without the consent of Parliament • Parliament had authorized troops, colonists felt own local assemblies had to grant consent as well • July, 1774- Quebec Act- governor and council appointed by the king would govern Quebec- also added Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, and Indiana, Wisconsin to Quebec- colonists moving west would fall under royal control with no ability to elect assemblies • Quebec followed the Coercive Acts- implied British trying to take control of colonial governments • Colonies heard of harsh treatment of Massachusetts- sympathy and outrage • Coercive Acts and Quebec Act together known as the Intolerable Acts

  28. EQ: How did the colonies prepare for war with Great Britain? • First Continental Congress • May 1774 Virginia House of Burgesses declared arrival of British troops in Boston a “military invasion” • Virginia’s governor (royal) dissolved the House of Burgesses, members went to a local tavern and issued a resolution, colonies suspend trade with Britain- send delegates to a colonial congress to discuss options • Patrick Henry ready for war- “I know not what course others may take, but for me, give me liberty or give me death” • New York, Rhode Island had made calls for a congress of colonies • Committees of correspondence coordinated the different proposals, September 5, 1774 First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia • 55 delegates represented 12 of 13 colonies- Florida, Georgia, Quebec did not attend • Delegates- wide range of views- moderates opposed Intolerable Acts saw compromise as the solution • Radicals- time for war

  29. First Continental Congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves- prepared by citizens in Boston and Suffolk County, Massachusetts • Colonists not obey Coercive Acts • Arm themselves • Stop buying British goods • While discussion took place- Congress learned of the suspension of the Massachusetts assembly • Congress issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances- expressed loyalty to the King, condemned the Coercive Acts, stated the colonies would form nonimportationassocation • Delegates approved Continental Association- plan for every county and town to form committees to enforce the boycott of British goods • Agreed to meet for a Second Continental Congress in May of 1775 if the situation had not improved

  30. October, 1774 • The suspended Massachusetts assembly organized the Massachusetts Provincial Congress in defiance of the British • The Provincial Congress created the Committee of Safety led by John Hancock- power to call up the militia • Hancock now challenged the power of General Gage • Militias began to drill and practice marksmanship • Concord created a unit of men trained and ready to “stand at a minute’s warning in case of alarm” • Minutemen • Summer and fall of 1774- British control of colonies weakened as colonists created provincial congresses and militias raided depots for ammunition and gunpowder • Actions angered British

  31. Loyalists and Patriots • Colonists had to make a decision- stay loyal to the king or support the independence movement • Many were loyal to the king- believed British law should be obeyed • Supporters of the king called Tories or Loyalists • Loyalists were in every colony and in all social classes • Government officials, Anglican ministers, merchants, landowners, backcountry farmers ( saw king as their protector from planters and merchants who controlled local government) • Other side- saw king as a tyrant- abuser of rights- called Patriots or Whigs • Patriots represented a large cross section of colonial society- artisans, farmers, merchants, planters, lawyers, urban workers • Patriots had a strong following in New England and Virginia • Most loyalists lived in Georgia, Carolinas, New York • Political differences divided communities and some families

  32. American Revolution a war between the British and the colonists and a civil war between loyalists and patriots • Prior to the Revolution- patriots brutally enforced the boycott of British goods • Tarred and feathered loyalists- disrupted Loyalist meetings • Loyalists fought back- not as many by number and not as well organized • It is possible the majority of the colonists did not support either side- were caught in the middle

  33. Lexington and Concord • April, 1775- General Gage was ordered to arrest the Massachusetts Provincial Congress- even if it meant an armed conflict • Gage did not know where the Provincial Congress was meeting- decided instead to take the militia’s supply depot at Concord • April 18, 1775 700 British troops marched on Concord- the march took them through Lexington • Patriot leaders sent William Dawes and Paul Revere to sound the alarm- made it to Lexington to warn that the British were coming • Dr. Samuel Prescott headed for Concord- British stopped Revere and Dawes- Prescott made it and warned Concord • April 19, 1775 British troops arrived in Lexington- saw 70 minutemen lined up on the village green • British marched onto the field- ordered minutemen to disperse • Minutemen backed away from British troops- shot fired- British fired on the minutemen, killed 8 wounded 10

  34. British moved on to Concord- most of the military supplies had been moved • Crossing the North Bridge- British encountered 400 colonial militia • Battle occurred, British forced to retreat • British marched back to Boston- militia and farmers shot at the British from behind barns, houses, trees, stone walls • Arriving at Boston the British had lost 99 men,, 174 wounded • Colonists lost 49 militia and 46 wounded • News of the conflict spread across the colonies- militia from all over New England arrived to fight the British- May 1775 the militia had surrounded Boston- trapping the British • Shot heard round the world, first time an armed rebellion had taken place in a British colony

  35. Second Continental Congress • Met in Philadelphia two weeks after Lexington and Concord • Issues; • -defense- “adopted” the militia army surrounding Boston- named it the Continental Army • -June 15, 1775 named George Washington to command the new army • Before Washington assumed command, British landed reinforcements in Boston • British moved to surround the hills north of Boston • With advance warning- militia moved first, June 16, 1775 militia dug in on Breed’s Hill near Bunker Hill- started construction of a fort at the top of the hill • General Gage sent 2,200 British troops to take the hill • Legend has it that American commander William Prescott told troops “do not fire until you see the whites of their eyes” • British within 50 yards Americans opened fire- stopped to British attempts to take the hill- Americans forced to retreat upon running out of ammunition

  36. Battle of Bunker Hill • Battle known as the Battle of Bunker Hill built American confidence- colonial militia could stand up to one of the world’s strongest militaries • British had 1,000 casualties in the battle • General Gage resigned and was replaced by General William Howe-Boston became a stalemate- British troops encircled by the colonial militia

  37. Declaring independence • Fighting took place in the summer of 1775 • Colonists divided on declaring independence • Majority of the Second Continental Congress wanted the right to self-government but not break with England • By 1776 opinion had changed- Britain’s refusal to compromise led many patriot leader call for independence • July 1775 siege of Boston continued- Continental Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III • Written by John Dickinson- stated the colonies still loyal to the king and asked him to call off hostilities and resolve the problems peacefully • Radical delegates of Congress convinced them to order an attack on British troops in Quebec- hoped the French in Quebec would rebel and join in fighting British • American forces took Montreal, but French would not rebel

  38. Attack on Quebec showed British there was no hope for a peaceful solution • Olive Branch Petition arrived in England- King George III refused to read it- proclaimed the colonies now open and avowed enemies ordered military to put down rebellion in America • No compromise- Continental Congress began to act like an official government • Sent delegates to negotiate with the Native Americans and establish a postal system, Continental Navy, and Marine Corps • March 1776 Continental Navy raided the Bahamas and began seizing British merchant ships

  39. Revolution began, Governor Dunmore of Virginia organized two loyalist armies to aid British troops in Virginia • One was made up of white loyalists and the other enslaved Africans • Dunmore promised the African slaves enslaved by rebels would be freed if they fought for the loyalists • This action in regards to slavery led many southern planters to turn to the independence movement, otherwise might lose land and labor force • Planters increased effort to raise large Patriot army • December 1775- Patriot troops attacked and defeated Dunmore’s forces near Norfolk- British pulled soldiers out of Virginia- left Patriots in control • N.C., Patriot troops defeated loyalist troops at the Battle of Moore’s Creek, February 1776 • British moved to take Charles Town, city militia repelled the attack • Fighting in the south- Washington ordered his troops to take the hills south of Boston

  40. Americans took hills by surprise- surrounded Boston- British navy evacuated British troops- Boston under the control of the patriots • British not backing down- December 1775 King George III issued the Prohibitory Act- shut down trade with colonies- ordered a naval blockade- British expanded army- recruited mercenaries- Germany Hessians

  41. Common Sense • War continued- many moved to a declaration of independence • January 1776 Thomas Paine published Common Sense- until Paine’s publication most colonists blamed Parliament not the King • Paine attack George III- Parliament did not act without the King’s support • Paine argued monarchies had been set up by seizing power from the people- King George was a tyrant and it was time to declare independence • This was propaganda, an attempt to influence public opinion • 3months of the publication over 100,000 copies sold • G. Washington noted “Common Sense is working a powerful change in the minds of men” • Provincial congresses and legislatures told delegates to the Continental Congress to vote for independence • July, 1776 committee made up of Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson submitted a d ocument (drafted by Jefferson)to the Congress

  42. Explained why it was time for independence • July 4, 1776 Continental Congress issued the Declaration of Independence • Colonies now moving to become the United States of America • American Revolution officially began

  43. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE • Preamble; • Statement of what is going to happen- goals of the declaration • Dissolve the political bands which had connected them with another • Assume powers of the earth, separate and equal station to which laws of nature and nature’s God entitle them

  44. Declaration of natural rights; • Self-evident truths; all men are created equal, endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; life, liberty, and property • Governments are made by men, gain powers from the consent of the governed • Government becomes destructive of these ends, the right of the people to institute a new government

  45. EQ: HOW DID THE COLONISTS DEFEAT GREAT BRITAIN? • Continental Congress voted for independence, British troops landed in New York Harbor • Mid August, 1776- 32,000 British troops commanded by General William Howe • British believed the rebellion would be short livedBritish troops disciplined, well trained, well equipped • Continental Army, inexperienced and ill equipped • Over 230,000 men served in the Continental Army rarely over 20,000 served at any time • Many deserted, refused to reenlist when terms expired • Some left to return home to farms at planting and harvesting time

  46. List of Grievances; • He has……… • List of complaints against the British government and King George III in particular • Resolution of Independence by the United States; • Declare colonies free and independent states • No allegiance to the British crown- all political connections dissolved • Powers of independent states; levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, all other acts which independent states have the right to do • Pledge to each other our lives, fortunes, and scared honor

  47. War hard to pay for • Continental Congress had no power to tax • Continental Congress did issue paper money; “Continentals” not backed by gold or silver- became worthless • Robert Morris, wealthy Pennsylvania merchant and banker- pledged large amounts of money for the war • Morris set up a method of buying supplies and uniforms, arranged foreign loans, got Congress to create the Bank of North America to finance military • British had to fight both Continental Army and local militias • Militias poorly trained, fought differently, did not line up for battle, hid behind trees and walls and ambushed British troops and supply wagons • Guerrilla warfare • British faced division at home, merchants, some Parliament members opposed the war- British needed quick cheap victory before Parliament turned against the war- Patriots need not win just hold on until British grew tried of paying for the war

  48. Balance of Power in Europe, French, Dutch, Spanish ready to take advantage of British problems • British had to use troops to protect colonies on other continents • Balance of power made it possible that the Patriots could find an ally • British had to win fast- had to convince Americans that the cause was hopeless- allow safe surrender without being charged with treason • General Howe had a two part strategy; • -1. sent large contingent of troops to take New York City- separate New England from the South- show Americans no chance for victory • -2. diplomacy; invited delegates from the Continental Congress to a peace conference- promised if rebels laid down arms, swore loyalty to king, would be pardoned • Americans saw Howe no authority to negotiate, refused to continue talks • Northern Battles; Congress asked Washington to defend New York City- New York fall without a fight, hurt American morale- Washington moved troops to Long Island, Continental Army attacked by British summer of 1776- many soldiers ran away- 1,500 wounded or killed- British slow to advance, allowed remainder of the Continental Army to retreat to Manhattan-