DevelopmentalPsychology • Study of changes that occur in people from birth to old age • Covers many topics—interested in HOW and WHY changes take place over time
Maturation & ReflexesAre they the same? • Maturation—AUTOMATIC and sequential process of development (sit, crawl, stand, walk) • Reflexes—an INVOLUNTARY REACTION or RESPONSE (swallowing, sucking, coughing) So do you think maturation and reflexes are the same? WRITE IT!
Cognition All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing and remembering.
Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget. • Developing IQ tests • noticed that many children got the same answers wrong. • Thought to himself, maybe these kids think differently than adults.
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development • Sensorimotor • Preoperational • Concrete Operational • Formal Operational
Piaget’s important concepts • Children are active thinkers, always trying to make sense of the world. • To make sense of the world, they develop schemas. • Schema- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. • A mental framework for understanding the world
Egocentrism • Egocentrism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OinqFgsIbh0&feature=related • 1 minute clip
Sensorimotor Stage • The Sensorimotor Stage is from approximately birth to 2 years of age. • Babies take in the world purely through their senses- looking, hearing, touching, tasting and grasping.
Sensorimotor Stage • At 4 to 8 months of age, your child will learn that she can make things move by banging them and shaking them. (Example--shaking a rattle, banging on toys, banging on tray of high chair)
Sensorimotor Stage • Between 12 and 18 months your child will be able to represent hidden objects in her mind (Object Permanence). • In other words, she will be able to “see” objects even when they are out of sight. • Before Object Permanence- what is out of sight, is gone from the universe forever – critical to overcome separation anxiety. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ue8y-JVhjS0&feature=related • 1 minute clip
Sensorimotor Stage • At 18 to 24 months of age, a child will begin to use images to stand for objects. In other words, a physical object can represent something else. Symbols represent objects or events in one’s own environment.
Sensorimotor Stage • This ability is called mediation and is very important in a child’s development because it means the child can think about more than just the objects that are around her; she can think about the whole world.
Preoperational Stage • The Preoperational Stage is from approximately 2 to 7 years of age.
Preoperational Stage • At the early part of this stage, a child will develop the ability to use symbols.
Preoperational Stage • Between the ages of 3 and 4, your child will be able to apply this ability to symbolize with objects, to people (names represent people).
Children LACK principles of conservation (until the end of this stage) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o • 3 minute clip
Preoperational Stage • By the end of this stage, the child will understand the concept of conservation – the notion that no matter what you do to an object’s shape or size, the volume remains fixed.
"Cut it up into a LOT of slices mom!!! I'm really hungry!!!"
Preoperational Stage • Children in the preoperational stage are egocentric (the inability to take on another’s point of view).
Concrete Operational Stage • 7-11 years old • Understand concept of conservation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M • 1 minute clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJyuy4B2aKU&feature=related • 1 minute clip • Can think logically, use analogies, and perform mathematical transformations (5+9 is the same as 9+5) also known as reversibility.
Formal Operational Stage • We can reason abstractly. If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary? Stevie Wonder is god. God is love. Love is Blind Stevie Wonder is Blind.
Harry Harlow & Attachment • The monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth mother. • Contact comfort is a basic need
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ngdajd_eZng&feature=relatedHarry Harlow: Contact http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU&feature=relatedMary Ainsworth: Strange Situation
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Moral Reasoning based on Internalized moral principles— What’s good for humankind Moral Reasoning based on Social Rules and Expectations—-- law and order Moral Reasoning based on External Consequences— What will happen to ME?