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A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

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A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

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  1. A Topical Approach toLIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter Eight: Intelligence John W. Santrock

  2. Concept of Intelligence • Intelligence • Similar to thinking and memory skills • Cannot be directly measured • Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences • Individual differences are stable, consistent

  3. Concept of Intelligence • Intelligence tests • The Binet tests • Mental age (MA)— individual’s level of mental development relative to others • Chronological age (CA) — age from birth • Intelligence quotient (IQ)— individual’s MA divided CA, multiplied by 100 • Normal distribution — symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean

  4. The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores Fig. 8.1

  5. Concept of Intelligence • Intelligence tests • Wechsler sclaes • WAIS-III — for adults • WISC-IV — for children • WPPSI-III — for preschool and primary children • Overall IQ score with composite scores • Measures verbal and performance IQ

  6. Concept of Intelligence • Use and misuse of intelligence tests • Tests are tools; use depends upon skills of user • Real world use: predictors of school success • Moderately correlated with work performance; correlation decreases as experience increases • IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations; self-fulfilling prophecies • Measures current performance • Other factors also affect success

  7. Concept of Intelligence • Theories of multiple intelligence • Controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities • Sternberg’s triarchic theory • Main types of IQ: analytic, creative, practical • Triarchic patterns differ among students; affects how each performs and is perceived by others • Most tasks require some combination of these

  8. Concept of Intelligence • Theories of multiple intelligence • Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences • Identifies eight types; perceived as strengths in some situations, improved with experience • Verbal, mathematics, spatial, interpersonal, body-kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, and naturalist skills • Can be destroyed, survive brain damage • Can be exaggerated: gifted, autistic savants

  9. Concept of Intelligence • Theories of multiple intelligence • Social intelligence components included in Sternberg’s and Gardner’s theories • Emotional intelligence linked to social behaviors • Criticized as broadening IQ too much • Contributions of multiple intelligence theories cannot be ignored; they have much to offer • Many criticisms of these

  10. Concept of Intelligence • Theories of multiple intelligence • Spearman’s two-factor theory: factor analysis correlates test scores into clusters or factors • Many argue there is a “general intelligence”’ and then some have additional “specific intelligence” abilities • Most agree all intellectual abilities are related to each other • IQ tests may be too narrow to measure them

  11. Controversies and Group Comparisons • Influence of heredity and environment • Genetic influences: heritability is from genes • Refers to specific groups • Influences increase with age • Based on IQ tests and faulty assumptions • Truth: genes and experience work together

  12. Controversies and Group Comparisons • Influence of heredity and environment • Environmental influences • Experiences make a difference in intelligence • Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably; very complex • SES, parent communication, schooling • Intelligence test scores increase each year around the world; effects of technology? • Flynn effect

  13. Controversies and Group Comparisons • Research on early intervention • High quality intervention improves IQ and school achievement • Effects strongest for poor with low educated parents • Positive benefits continue into adolescence • Educates parents to be more sensitive • Abecedarian Project

  14. Controversies and Group Comparisons • Group comparisons and issues • Cross-cultural comparisons problematic • Intelligence definition varies by culture; • Cultural values influence development • Practical, academic IQ can develop separately • Cultural bias in testing • Language, environmental experiences, SES

  15. Controversies and Group Comparisons • Group comparisons and issues • Cultural bias in testing • Culture-fair tests: unbiased IQ tests • First type: questions on information common to all SES and ethnic groups • Second type: no verbal questions used • Results: the most educated still score higher • Sternberg: can only make culture-reduced tests

  16. Controversies and Group Comparisons • Group comparisons and issues • Ethnic comparisons in IQ testing • African American and Latino children score lower than white children on average • SES may have more effect than ethnicity; gap narrows in college • Questions raised about measuring ability of tests; individual scores vary considerably • Influence of stereotype threat

  17. Controversies and Group Comparisons • Group comparisons and issues • Gender comparisons in IQ testing • Average scores for females and males overlap • Males score better in some nonverbal abilities; some females better in verbal abilities • Variability higher in male scores • Questions of how strong differences are

  18. The Development of Intelligence • Tests of infant intelligence • Focus on perceptual-motor, social interaction, and much less verbal than IQ tests for older children • Gesell: distinguishes normal from abnormal • Four categories of behavior: motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social • Combined overall score is developmental quotient (DQ)

  19. The Development of Intelligence • Tests of infant intelligence • Bayley Scales of Infant Development (v. III) • Has five scales: • Cognitive, language, motor, adaptive, and socio-emotional • Three scales are direct measurement • Two are questions answered by caregiver • More suitable for clinical setting

  20. The Development of Intelligence • Tests of infant intelligence • Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence • Use is increasing • Focuses on infant ability to process information • Encoding objects’ attributes • Detecting object similarities and differences • Forming, retriving mental representations

  21. The Development of Intelligence • Stability and change in intelligence through adolescence • IQ score correlation statistically significant between preadolescence and age 18 • IQ test scores can fluctuate dramatically across childhood • Children are adaptive and change • IQ not as stable as theorists once thought

  22. The Development of Intelligence • Intelligence in adulthood • Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence • Crystallized intelligence • Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age • Fluid intelligence • Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on • Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cohort testing

  23. Fluid and Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span Fig. 8.7

  24. The Development of Intelligence • Intelligence in adulthood • Seattle Longitudinal Study — 500 adult subjects • Since 1956: focused on • Vocabulary • Verbal memory • Number (math): declined in middle age • Spatial orientation • Inductive reasoning • Perceptual speed: showed earliest decline

  25. The Development of Intelligence • Intelligence in adulthood • Seattle Longitudinal Study • Intellectual abilities decline more in cross-sectional rather than longitudinal assessments • Middle-age was time of peak performance • When two generations assessed at ages 60-67, second generation showed higher cognitive functioning

  26. Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities Fig. 8.8

  27. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons of Intellectual Change Fig. 8.9

  28. The Development of Intelligence • Cognitive mechanics and pragmatics • Cognitive mechanics • Hardware of the mind • Speed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input • More biological influenced; declines with age

  29. The Development of Intelligence • Cognitive mechanics and pragmatics • Cognitive pragmatics • Culture-based; “software” of the mind • Reading/writing, language comprehension • Educational qualifications • Professional skills • Knowledge about self and life skills • Can improve with age

  30. The Development of Intelligence • Wisdom • Expert knowledge on practical aspects of life permitting excellent judgment about important matters • High levels of wisdom are rare • Emerges late adolescence and early adulthood • Factors other than age are critical • Personality-related factors better predictors of wisdom

  31. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Mental retardation • Condition of limited mental ability • Low IQ on traditional test of intelligence • Difficulty adapting to everyday life • Onset by age 18; range of impairments vary • Some causes include • Organic retardation • Cultural-familial retardation

  32. Classification of Mental Retardation Based on IQ Fig. 8.12

  33. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Giftedness • Above-average intelligence; figures are arbitrary • IQ of 130 is often used as low threshold • Generally not related to mental disorder • Individuals tend to be more mature, have fewer emotional problems, grow up in positive family

  34. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Giftedness • Distinct characteristics of gifted children • Precocity • March to their own drummer • Passion to master • Innate ability needs support of deliberate practice • Needs to be with others like themselves

  35. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Creativity • Ability to think in novel/unusual ways, and come up with unique/good solutions • Requires divergent thinking • Intelligence and creativity not same thing; most creative people are quite intelligent but reverse not necessarily true • Conventional IQ tests measure convergent thinking

  36. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Steps in the creative process • Preparation • Incubation • Insight • Evaluation • Elaboration • Not all creative people follow linear sequence

  37. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Characteristics of Creative Thinkers • Flexibility and playful thinking • Brainstorming • Inner motivation • Willingness to risk • Objective evaluation of work

  38. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Teaching in schools • Help students become more creative • Encourage brainstorming, taking intellectual risks • Provide environments that stimulate creativity • Don’t overcontrol students; build confidence • Encourage internal motivation, persistence, and delayed gratification • Introduce children to creative people

  39. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Changes in adulthood • Individuals’ most creative products were generated in their thirties • 80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50 • Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before declining • Age of decline varies by domain

  40. Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity • Living a More Creative Life • Try to be surprised by something every day • Try to surprise at least one person every day • Write down the surprises of each day • Follow sparked interests • Wake up in the morning with a specific goal • Take charge of your schedule • Spend time in stimulating settings

  41. The End