Latin America’sIndependence MovementsWrite down all of the underlined information.
Colombian Exchange • Took place between the Americas and Europe • Exchange of goods, animals, beliefs and ideas, & disease
Impact of Colombian Exchange 3 major areas: • Decline of indigenous populations • Natives lack immunity to diseases • 80% died as a result of European disease (smallpox, measles, influenza) • Agricultural change • New foods brought to Europe & Latin America • Introduction of the horse • Used for transportation and labor • Main form of transport until early 20th century
Slave trade • Natives were used as slaves first, but many died of disease or escaped • Africans were used to replace slaves over time • Highly skilled farmers and metal workers • Could handle hot climate • Could not easily escape • More immune to disease
Slave trade • African slavery was extremely important in the development of South America & the Caribbean for the next 300 years. • 9 out of 10 inhabitants in the Caribbean were slaves • As the colonies gained their independence, so did the slaves. • Most Caribbean people today are descendants from African slaves. • This continues to blend the ethnic groups within Latin America
Impact of colonization • 1494 AD • Treaty of Tordesillas signed between Spain and Portugal • Set the Line of Demarcation • Imaginary line at 50 degrees longitude. • Spain claimed land west of the line • Portugal claimed land east of the line • This is why Brazil speaks Portuguese
Impact of colonization today • Blend of native and European customs • Language links all cultures together • Spanish is predominant, but Brazil speaks Portugese • Ethnic Groups –started to blend together. • Mestizos –Native American and European • Mulattos –Africans and Europeans • Criollo – Of Spanish parents but born in Latin America • Religion • Major religion is Catholicism –brought by the Europeans • Replaced the practice of idol worship and human sacrifice
Impact of colonization • Encomiendas- The rights to demand taxes or labor from the Native Americas given to the Spanish settlers. • Hacienda – A plantation owned by the Spaniards or the Catholic Church
Mexico’s (New Spain) Multilayered Society Spanish- ruling class (peninsulares) Criollos- military leaders *Draw this chart.* Mestizos & Mullatos • Natives & Africans (slaves) • largest group
Late 1700s – Early 1800s • Latin Americans heard of the American Revolution & French Revolution...they wanted their own freedom! • Revolution- A political movement where the people overthrow the government and set up another.
Caribbean Independence Movement*Haiti (French colony)* • Toussaint L’Ouverture • A former slave who led the revolution in Saint-Dominque beginning in 1791. • 1804- island becomes Haiti. • This was the beginning to the freedom of Latin America.
Haiti was the first Latin American country to break free from Imperialism. • However, they have lived under harsh dictators and are the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere
Mexican Independence Movement(Spanish colonies) • Miguel Hidalgo • Led revolution movement in Mexico- gave speech called “Cry of Delores” and rallied mestizos and criollos • captured and executed • Revolution continued & Mexico won • Known as “Father of Mexican Independence”
Spanish control in S. America • Spain ruled over most of S. America for 300 years • Spain grew enormously wealthy • Colonists wanted to share in the political and economic wealth –decided to fight for independence *Red is part ruled by the Spanish.
South American Independence • Simon Bolivar- “El Libertador” joins the independence movement • fought for 15 years to liberate many northern countries in S. America. • Caudillo – L. American leaders trained by Bolivar…most were strict ruling military officers.
South American Independence • Jose de San Martin • Led independence movement in southern countries of S. America • Defeated Spanish in 1825
Brazil’s Independence • Brazil’s independence was peaceful • 1807: France invades Portugal • Portugal’s royal family flees to Brazil for safety, but returns after France’s defeat. • The king’s son, Dom Pedro, was left behind to rule the “colony”. • In 1822, Brazilians demanded freedom from Portugal...Pedro becomes emperor & declared Brazil independent.
What next? • Bolivar wanted to turn South America into the “United States of South America”, but natural barriers made that impossible. • Eventually, he retired and the Caudillos took over the government of South America.