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INCORPORATING QUOTATIONS INTO WRITING

INCORPORATING QUOTATIONS INTO WRITING

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INCORPORATING QUOTATIONS INTO WRITING

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  1. INCORPORATING QUOTATIONS INTO WRITING Mrs. Dobbs’s pups… just because!

  2. Blended Quotes • Quotations cannot simply be “dropped” into a text! • This causes confusion for the reader (especially if they’ve forgotten the quote!). • It also makes the reading “rough” and “choppy,” which only detracts from your persuasiveness. • Therefore, quotes must be “blended” into your writing seamlessly…. Like this….

  3. Types of Blending a b Before stabbing himself, Othello reminds his listeners, “‘I have done the state some service and they know’t.’” He speaks of himself as “one that loved not wisely but too well” and compares himself to “‘the base Indian’” who “‘threw a pearl away / Richer than all his tribe’” (5.2.337-47). c a= run-in quotation b, c = embedded quotations

  4. Run-in Quote Defined • Run-in quote: formally introduces the quote by who is saying it/ introduction is always followed by a comma • Before stabbing himself, Othello reminds his listeners, “‘I have done the state some service and they know’t.’”

  5. Embedded Quote Defined • Embedded quote: a quotation that is “mixed” into the writing and is used as if it is part of the writer’s own words • He speaks of himself as “one that loved not wisely but too well” and compares himself to “‘the base Indian’” who “‘threw a pearl away / Richer than all his tribe’” (5.2.337-47).

  6. Setting up Quotes How do you blend quotes exactly? You add TCS! Set them up with a TCS: (Transition, Context, Speaker). However, before stabbing himself, Othello reminds his listeners, “I have done the state some service and they know’t” (5.2.337).

  7. Setting up quotes “I have done the state some service and they know’t” (5.2.337). However, before stabbing himself, Othello reminds his listeners, “I have done the state some service and they know’t” (5.2.337). WRONG TCS (Transition, Context, Speaker). T RIGHT

  8. Setting up quotes “I have done the state some service and they know’t” (5.2.337). However, before stabbing himself, Othello reminds his listeners, “I have done the state some service and they know’t” (5.2.337). WRONG TCS (Transition, Context, Speaker). T C RIGHT

  9. Setting up quotes “I have done the state some service and they know’t” (5.2.337). However, before stabbing himself, Othello remindshis listeners, “I have done the state some service and they know’t” (5.2.337). WRONG TCS (Transition, Context, Speaker). T C S RIGHT

  10. TCS Rule #1 • Every blended quotation must have TCS! WRONG The “influence [of] Austen’s secluded lifestyle” was profound. According to Jim Halloway’s criticism entitled “Jane Austen’s Life and Times,” Halloway describes the “influence Austen’s secluded lifestyle had upon her writing.” RIGHT

  11. TCS Rule #2 • TCS can appear in any order, but MUST appear BEFORE the Quotation! For example, the “influence [of] Austen’s secluded lifestyle […] upon her writing” had a profound impact, which Jim Halloway describes in his literary criticism entitled “Jane Austen’s Life and Times.” According to Jim Halloway’s criticism entitled “Jane Austen’s Life and Times,” Halloway describes the “influence Austen’s secluded lifestyle had upon her writing.” WRONG RIGHT

  12. TCS Rule #3 • TCS is the ONLY PLACE where you should mention any PLOT!! And it’s a “mention”/ a “reminder”– NOT a PLOT SUMMARY! You have to assume your educated/ informed reader knows the text. For example, when Macbeth contemplates whether or not to kill the king, he weighs the role of Duncan as being at his home in “double-trust” as a reason not to kill his sovereign.

  13. Correcting problems WRONG Othello says, “One that loved not wisely but too well” (5.2.343). (Incorrect blending = has formed a FRAGMENT or INCOMPLETE SENTENCE!) Othello speaks of himself as “one that loved not wisely but too well” (5.2.343). RIGHT

  14. Correcting problems WRONG RIGHT Othello asks his auditors to “speak of me as I am” (5.2.341). (The pronouns “me” and “I” do not agree in person with their antecedent. They need to be changed!) Othello bids his auditors to “speak of [him] as [he is]” (5.2.341). Notice that I changed words in the quote by putting brackets around them. You can do this; however, if you have to change too many words like I did in the example above, it’s probably best to just blend in another way because your quotation may lose credibility.

  15. A better way to blend it… • Othello asks his auditors, “Speak of me as I am” (5.2.341). • Notice that I capitalized the word “Speak” here b/c I have created a run-in quotation. You should always capitalize when introducing a quotation formally even if it’s not capitalized in the text.

  16. Correcting problems WRONG Iago bids his wife to “hold your [her] peace” (5.2.218-19). (Your sentences, including your bracketed words, must read as if there were no brackets. So, in this case, I need to leave out the “your” b/c I have replaced it with “her”.) Iago bids his wife to “hold [her] peace” (5.2.218-19). RIGHT

  17. Correcting problems WRONG Othello says that “I have done the state some service” (5.2.338). (Incorrect mixture of pronouns again. It switches from third-person “Othello” to first-person “I.”) Othello says, “I have done the state some service” (5.2.338). RIGHT

  18. Correcting problems WRONG Othello says that he “have done the state some service” (5.2.338). (Subject and verb of subordinate clause do not agree. The noun “he” must be followed with “has.”) Othello says that he has “done the state some service” (5.2.338). RIGHT

  19. Present to Past = OK • When we are writing about literature, we need to use present tense; however, it is acceptable to leave the verbs in the quotations in past tense. Like in the example below, I use the present tense verb “goes,” but the quote has a past tense verb “did” instead of “does.” It’s acceptable to leave this the way it is. Macbeth goes to kill the king, and he “did the deed.”

  20. Use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. This tells that something is spoken. Also, use slashes / to show line breaks in poetry. Quotations within quotations In her dying speech, Emilia asks her dead mistress, “‘Hark, canst thou hear me? I will play the swan, / And die in music. Willow, willow, willow’” (5.2.246-47).

  21. Ellipsis • Use an ellipsis to cut out any unnecessary parts of the quote, and put brackets around the ellipsis to show that YOU added it and that it’s not in the original text. Jim Halloway writes about how “Jane Austen’s legacy […] will be remembered forever.”

  22. Place commas and periods inside quotation marks. • Place semicolons and colons outside quotation marks. • Place question marks and exclamation marks inside if they belong to the quoted sentence, outside if they belong to your sentence. In or out? “I am not valiant neither,” says Othello (5.2.242). Othello says, “I am not valiant neither” (5.2.242). “Who can control his fate?” cries Othello (5.2.264). Does Shakespeare endorse Othello’s implication that no one “can control his fate”? (5.2.264).