Folk Tales Stories of a People
Folk tales are stories that teach a lesson and are passed down orally to each generation.
Literary Terms • Motif—an element of a story that is used in many stories from many cultures • Ex—the damsel in distress; the wicked stepmother; trickster tales • Denotation—the dictionary definition of a word • Connotation—your personal definition of a word
“Coyote/Sun & Moon” Questions • Name two things about our world that this story explains how they began. • Why does Eagle say that he must give in to Coyote’s request?
The Magic Number The number shows up again and again in many different stories. Examples:
More Literary Terms Colloquialism—informal speech; slang Dialect—the way people from certain areas speak, including expressions and accents Accent—the way people pronounce words
“Brer Possum’s Dilemma” Questions—page 597 • List three examples of the magic number from this story. • What dialect does this story sound like?
“Brer Rabbit and Brer Lion” Questions—page 575 • List two examples of the magic number from this story. • What dialect is used in this story? Explain how this is possible if this story came from Africa.
Tall Tales A tall tale is a story, sometimes about real people, that has been exaggerated
Literary Term Hyperbole—an extreme exaggeration
The King of the Wild Frontier Davy Crockett was a real frontiersman and a hero of the Alamo. The Whigs created these tall tales about him because they wanted to get him elected to Congress.
Davy Is Born Questions • List five examples of hyperbole. • What two statements do you think the authors included specifically to make people think Davy Crockett would be a good Congressman?
Davy and the Frozen Dawn • Read this story independently. • Underline examples of hyperbole. • Keep this story in your notebook.
Davy and the Frozen Dawn One winter, it was so cold that the dawn froze solid. The sun got caught between two ice blocks, and the earth iced up so much that it couldn’t turn. The first rays of sunlight froze halfway over the mountain tops. They looked like yellow icicles dripping toward the ground. Now Davy Crockett was headed home after a successful night hunting when the dawn froze up so solid. Being a smart man, he knew he had to do something quick or the earth was a goner. He had a freshly killed bear on his back, so he whipped it off, climbed right up on those rays of sunlight and began beating the hot bear carcass against the ice blocks which were squashing the sun. Soon a gush of hot oil burst out of the bear and it melted the ice. Davy gave the sun a good hard kick to get it started, and the sun?s heat unfroze the earth and started it spinning again. So Davy lit his pipe on the sun, shouldered the bear, slid himself down the sun rays before they melted and took a bit of sunrise home in his pocket.
“Paul Bunyan’s Cornstalk” Question—page 188 (blue) • List three examples of hyperbole. • What does this story explain about our world?
Irony Irony is when what happens is different from what you expect to happen. It is often used to create humor. Ex—It would be ironic for a teacher to tell a loud class to speak up because she can’t hear them.
3 Types of Irony Verbal Irony is when what is said is different from what is expected. Situational Irony is when the events of a story are different from what is expected. Dramatic Irony is when the audience knows things the characters do not.
Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is clues in a story that let you know what will happen later.
Irony in “The Ransom of Red Chief” Verbal irony— Situational irony— Dramatic irony—
Foreshadowing in “Red Chief” List the clues that told you the kidnapping would not go well:
Fables Fables are very short stories that teach a lesson. They usually have talking animals. Giving animals human characteristics, like talking, is called personification.
Aesop’s Fables Aesop is the most famous fable writer. He lived in Greece 2500 years ago and wrote these fables to warn politicians about their bad behaviors. Some of his most famous fables are “The Tortoise and the Hare” and “The Lion and the Mouse.”
Fable Questions • Name the story. • What is the lesson of this story? • What animals are in the story? And why do you think he chose these animals to be in his story?
Writing a Fable • List 2 or 3 annoying behaviors: • List potential animals:
Your Fable Must Include… • 1-3 animals that match the characteristics they represent • A title that names the animals you used • Dialogue (talking) for each animal • 100-300 words • A sentence with the lesson at the end
Folk Tale Quiz 1 • Includes questions about “Brer Possum,” “Coyote Steals the Sun & Moon,” “Brer Lion,” “The Lion and the Mouse,” “The Ant and the Grasshopper,” Davy Crockett, Paul Bunyan, and “The Ransom of Red Chief.” • Includes definitions of all terms we discussed so far (i.e. irony, personification)
Literary Devices • Rhyme--words that end with the same sound • Ex: hat, cat, mat, that, sat • Repetition--repeating the same words or phrases • Alliteration--words that begin with the same consonant sound (it does not have to be the same letter) • Ex: Tiny Tim, Kate Carbaugh, cuddly kitten
Literary Devices Continued • Assonance--repeating the same vowel sound in words • Ex: wicked witch, tie fly, peas please • Hint: words that rhyme must have assonance • Personification--giving human characteristics to nonhumans (animals, rocks, lakes) • Ex: an angry storm (storms don’t have emotions) talking animals describing leaves as a tree’s clothing
Just One More… • Imagery--words that create a picture (image) in you mind
Practice Finding Lit. Devices Baa, Baa Black Sheep Have you any wool? Yes sir, Yes sir Three bags full. One for my master, One for the dame, And one for the little boy Who lives down the lane.
Nursery Rhyme Variations Twinkle, Twinkle car so new How I wish that I owned you! But your price tag’s much too heavy, So I’ll drive my old Chevy. Twinkle, Twinkle car so new How I wish that I owned you!