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Chapter 23 Overview Notes: The Unification of Italy

Chapter 23 Overview Notes: The Unification of Italy

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Chapter 23 Overview Notes: The Unification of Italy

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  1. Chapter 23 Overview Notes:The Unification of Italy 1870 Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini King Victor Emmanuel II Count Camillo Cavour

  2. Unification of Italy

  3. OBSTACLES TO ITALIAN UNIFICATION: • collection of separate states ruled by foreign powers or local princes • 2. Napoleon’s invasions spark nationalistic feelings against Austrian Hapsburg control or French Bourbons • “YoungItaly,” a secret nationalistic society, founded by Mazzini, • attempts to est. a revolutionary republic in • Rome but effort fails

  4. NATIONALISM ENCOURAGES ITALIAN UNIFICATION: • united by geography, • a common language, • the history and glory of ancient Rome, • the papacy, & • economic freedom among Italian states

  5. Risorgimento (Italian nationalistic movement) • taken over by Kingdom of Sardinia; King Victor Emmanuel II names Count Camillo Cavour as prime minister, • a practitioner of Realpolitikto unite the Italian • states of Sardinia, Lombardy, and Venetia

  6. Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi • and his “RedShirts” win Sicilyand Naples • 4. Victor Emmanuel II • is crowned king of Italy and unites Venetia and • Rome to complete a unified Italy

  7. ITALY FACES NEW CHALLENGES: • 1. no tradition of unity • 2. regional rivalries between richer and more urban • north versus • rural and poor south unable to solve national issues • 3. popes resent losing control of the PapalStates and of • Rome (papacy is granted rule of the • VaticanCity but not until 1929) • 4. industrialization brings • urbanization • 5. population explosion causes • emigration to the U.S., Canada, Latin America • 6. Italy prospering by 1914 but unprepared for • world war

  8. NATIONALISM THREATENS OLD EMPIRES: HAPSBURGS • Oldest ruling house in Europe • Controls vast territories, esp. in E.Europe = multinational empire = Slavic groups and Hungarians • The DualMonarchy is established • FrancisJoseph • becomes emperor of Austria & • king of Hungary • Slavs resentful of union between Austria-Hungary ruled the Hapsburg dynasty for 62 yrs., dying at the age of 84

  9. Ottoman Turks

  10. Ruled multinational empire, including the Serbs & the Greeks on the • Balkan Peninsula who resent foreign rule • Ottoman Empire weak = • the “sickmanofEurope,” leading to attempts by European powers to take lands from • Turks

  11. EX: Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina on Balkan Peninsula in 1908 angering the Serbs

  12. Balkan region becomes known as the • “powderkegofEurope” by • 1914 leading to WorldWarI