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Robotics. Reprise on levels of language Movement in a crowded workspace Review for midterm Lab: Complete pick up, travel, deposit exercise. Homework: study for midterm. Post proposal for library research project. Movement. Move to position P. Note: position P may involve

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## Robotics

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**Robotics**Reprise on levels of language Movement in a crowded workspace Review for midterm Lab: Complete pick up, travel, deposit exercise. Homework: study for midterm. Post proposal for library research project.**Movement**• Move to position P. Note: position P may involve • 2D (planar) position, • 2D+orientation, • 2D+orientation+positioning/setting of gripper or other tooling • 3D (space) position, • 3D position + orientation (3 dimensions) • 3D position + orientation + positioning of tooling + (maybe) state of tooling (on or off)**How do we get there?**• Called: movement in crowded workspace • Two approaches: • Assuming the workspace is known, calculate path (trajectory) ahead of time • advantages: more efficient during operations • Disadvantages: difficult calculation. Objects may have moved—that is, workspace may not be known. • Move incrementally, using sensors, may involve backtracking**AI terms**• Brute force • Try everything • Heuristics • Use some special method, may not get the best answer • Closed form, algorithmic solution • Guaranteed best approach**Backtracking**• Brute force (but efficient brute force) • Enumerate (all at once or incrementally) solutions to problem and try them out • Implicit or explicit tree representing solutions • If there is a failure, mark solution as bad and go back to last known branching point. • Applications other than robotic movement: • Sudoku (see Flash examples on my site) • Position 8 queens on chess board so no 2 are on same horizontal, vertical or diagonal line • Stage in compilation that examines if sentence satisfies a rule in a grammar**Geometry**• Polygon is closed planar figure with straight lines as sides • Polygon is set of vertices and edges, each vertex connected to exactly 2 edges and the line segment defining each edge intersects with exactly two other edges • Convex polygon is such that for any two points inside the polygon, the edge/line segment connecting those points also is in the polygon • A concave polygon is one that is not convex**Class exercise**• Draw a polygon • Draw a figure with straight edges that is not a polygon • Draw a convex polygon • Draw a concave polygon.**Polyhedron**• Vertices, edges, faces, indication of presence of material (typically done using normals: outward pointing vectors) • Flat sides • Nominally curved surfaces (spheres, conic sections) approximated using facets**Back to robots**• Moving through a crowded workspace also called: the piano mover’s problem, wayfinding, moving in a crowded workspace, motion planning. • Many approaches involve ‘growing’ the obstacles and shrinking the piano/robot and doing this in multiple dimensions. • Growing may be in high[er] dimension space. • Many approaches involve general AI techniques, including backtracking and A* • Possible research paper topic! • Possible posting topic**Sources**• A* article http://www.policyalmanac.org/games/aStarTutorial.htm • Obstacle avoidance article http://www.aboutjens.com/dump/Reading/AI/Navigation/Automated_Static_and_Dynamic_Obstacle_Avoidance_in_Arbitrary_3D_Polygonal_Worlds1.pdf • Program http://code.google.com/p/straightedge/ • Animations http://gamma.cs.unc.edu/videos/robotics/**Midterm review**• ?**Library research project**• Proposal due March 22 REQUIRED • Please make constructive comments on each other’s proposals. • Paper and presentation due April 9 • 1 page: summary (abstract), 1 illustration, standard bibliography, proof-read! • Formal presentation: PowerPoint and/or other visuals • Try prezi.com**[Way to get to] Topics**• Postings (and/or my suggestions for postings) • Something you want to explore and work on in the future**Lab**• Complete pickup, travel, deposit, move away exercise. • use sensor or absolute value for pickup location • deposit in known absolute or relative location • understand which! • Start planning for parallel parking • tribot plus side mounted ultrasonic, optionally bumper • travel along parking lane determining where there is a spot. • back up / swivel. May use recorded path moves.**Homework**• Study for midterm: see on-line guide, review lecture charts, postings, suggested questions by students. • Prepare proposal for library research project

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