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Sports Nutrition: Jim White ADA Spokesman, RD, ACSM HFS

Sports Nutrition: Jim White ADA Spokesman, RD, ACSM HFS

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Sports Nutrition: Jim White ADA Spokesman, RD, ACSM HFS

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  1. Sports Nutrition: Jim White ADA Spokesman, RD, ACSM HFS

  2. Opening • “Our food should be our medicine and our medicine our food” Hippocrates • Food is can heal • Food can kill • THE POWER OF THE DIETITIAN • Sports Nutrition: study and practice of nutrition and diet related to performance

  3. Outline • Macronutrients: carbs, protein, fat, water, vitamins, minerals • Pre-workout and post-workout fuel • Eating for your sport • Supplements, engineered sports foods • Eating disorders • Assessing your body • Careers in Sports Nutrition

  4. Carbs • Sources: Fruits, veggies, whole grains • Benefits: Energy, Fiber, vit, min, increases glycogen • Bad rap-low carb • Low carb decreases energy • Cost converting carbs to fat 23%; fat to fat 3%

  5. Carbs • Simple vs complex: • Quick and slow-(Glycemic index) • Too many factors influence food glycemic index (banana) • Glycemic Load • Sports research fails to clearly show performance benefits from single use carbs

  6. Carbs • High glycemic—muscles replete faster • Low glycemic—better performance second day • Insulin double edge- increase appetite and fat deposit • Some studies show low GI foods increase wt loss more than higher carb diet---but others showed the opposite, so stay tuned

  7. Carbs • White vs wheat—greater than 50% grains from whole grains • Sugar highs and lows- athletes sugar sensitive • (Spike and Crash)—combine protein and fat • 200g yogurt (low)---200g jelly beans (high) • Honor personal response experiment

  8. Carbs • Carbs and glycogen—Average 150lb male has 1800cals stored in body (60,000-100,000 stored fat) 1400 muscle (used during exercise) 320 liver (used to keep blood glucose under control) 80g blood glucose Study exercise (Low carb—55min) (Carbed—twice as much) • Well-trained muscles store more (20-50% more glycogen)

  9. Carbs • Carb recommendations: 6-10g/kg body wt (150lb = 400-600g or 55-65% carbs)1-1.5g • Carb loading: a)carb load daily; b)taper training 7-10 days by 30%; c)keep consistent carb load • Successful load: properly gain 2-4lbs water; 1oz stored glycogen – 3oz water

  10. Protein • Rebuilds and repairs muscles • Grows hair and fingernails • Produces hormones • Boosts immune system • Replaces RBCs

  11. Protein • Is more better?—body building world 2x per lb • High protein downfalls: dehydration, increased fat, increased urinary loss Ca+, kidney stress, fat, expensive • Extra Extra- • Dieters consuming too few cals • Endurance athletes/intense exercisers (5% of energy) • Growing teenage athletes • Untrained people

  12. Protein • Requirements • Recreational exerciser: 0.5 -0.7 g/lb • Endurance : 0.6 -0.7 g/lb • Adult building muscle mass: 0.7 -0.8 g/lb • Complete-Chicken, eggs, fish, beef • Incomplete: wheat bread and peanut butter, beans and rice, cereal and milk • Vegetarians: soy, beans, nuts

  13. Protein • Supplements: unknown if bioactive compounds that might influence muscle growth • Whey better? Casein? Soy? • Supplement for: medically malnourished patients, underweight teens, anorexia, AIDS • Don’t replace real food..just doesn’t have all live nutrients

  14. Fat • Source of energy, fat soluble vitamins • Fat recommendations: 20-35% (less than 20% does not benefit performance • Trans fat, omega 3, omega 6, omega 9, sat fat

  15. Water • Replaces sweat losses • Transports glucose, O2, fats to working muscles Eliminates wastes • Absorbs heat from muscles • Lubricates joints • Regulates body temp (body generates 20 degree increase in temp)

  16. Dehydration • 1% body loss fluid = 1.5lbs • 2% loss is dehydration • 3% loss can impair aerobic performance

  17. Water recommendations • Fluid requirements: person to person based on sport, body size, intensity of exercise, weather • Dehydration Symptoms: Tired, bloated, nausea, headache---too low=>seizures, coma, death • Before: 16oz 1hr prior • During: 8oz every 15min • After: 16oz per 1lb sweat loss • 64 oz daily plus 16 oz per lb lossed

  18. Water • Hyponatremia and sodium loss: blood sodium levels become abnormally low • Hyper hydrate- dilutes body fluids and creates sodium imbalance • Happens : less 4hr events (over hydration) : more 4hr events (sweat loss)

  19. Hyponatrimia • Who? --slow marathoners, triathletes, ultra runners, unfit weekend warriors • Recommendation: 250-500mg Na per hr (20-40oz Gatorade) • Endurance sports drink with higher amounts Na for exercise more than 4hrs, • Eat sodium foods 90min before exercise (retains water) • The more you train in heat the less Na you lose because your body conserves Na and electrolytes

  20. Fluid Choices • OJ okay, orange preferred • Colas: phosphoric acid harmful to health • Vitamin water- expensive- too few vitamins • Energy drinks- Red Bull 80mg caffeine– quick energy fix will not replace suboptimal sports drink • Alcohol

  21. Eating for exercise success • Pre-workout: prevents hypoglycemia, helps settle stomach, absorb gastric juices, wards off hunger, fuels muscles, piece of mind knowing that body is fueled • Go by your gut—can cause distress—learn what works for you (varies person to person and sport to sport)

  22. Eating for exercise success • Preworkout and GI distress • Gi problems • Type of sport: cyclists and swimmers less GI • Training status: untrained people report more than trained • Age: younger more than veterans—less experience • Gender: women reported more (particularly time of menstruation)

  23. Eating for exercise success • Emotional and mental stress • High fiber • Caffeine • Gels: concentrated sugars can cause gastric distress

  24. Eating for exercise success • Preworkout • Recommendations: 0.5g carbs per lb 1 hr before moderate exercise • 2g carbs per lb 4hrs before • Eat and dash—wake up 2hrs early to eat • Morning liver glycogen is low—studies show performance is better with food

  25. Eating for exercise success Pre-exercise fueling guidelines: • Eat high carb meals on a daily basis • 1hr before exercise (fruit, yogurt, crackers) • Greater than 60min exercise: Little protein and fat (bagel with peanut butter or oats with low fat milk) • New Study: 20g pro and 20g carbs increases muscle glycogen and muscle synthesis

  26. Eating for exercise success • During Workout: • To maintain blood glucose level consume 100-250 cals (25-60g) carbs per 1hr after 1st hour • Gels, beans, sports drinks, banana, energy bar plus water

  27. Eating for exercise success • Post-workout: • 30min-1hr window ideal • 0.5g carbs per kg per hr • Carbs and protein combo • BENEFITS: Increases muscle synthesis and glycogen storage, decreases cortisol (hormone that breaks down muscle), decreases muscle soreness • Examples (yogurt and granola cereal and milk, pasta and meat sauce)

  28. Vitamins and Minerals (Team Players) • Stick to RDA Requirements; deficiency can hinder performance, excess no benefit • Multivitamin-”Health Insurance” • Calcium maintains ridged structure of bones-deficiency; increased risk of bone loss • ZINC essential for protein synthesis • IRON transports o2 to muscles • B VITAMINS-releases energy from foods • VIT D controls way you body uses calcium • SODIUM helps control water balance • POTASSIUM-assists muscle contraction; converts glucose to glycogen; no more than 3500mg supp k+

  29. Eating Disorders • Highest prevalence: Gymnastics, figure skating, wrestling, body building • Anorexia: 90% female, 10% males • Female athlete Triad: Loss of menstrual cycle, osteoporosis, disordered eating • Dysmorphia • Orthoexia

  30. Assessing the body • Body weight • Measurements • Body fat testing • Vo2 • BMI • IBW

  31. Careers in sports nutrition • Fitness Certification is recommended • Areas of work (private practice, highschool, college, professional sports, wellness centers, media, military bases, research • Society of sports nutrition; national association of sports nutrition, ACSM, ADA-Certified Specialist in Sports Nutrition • Communication and motivational skills • Learn their sport • 29k-60k income