Finishing Up Your Paper & Documentation/Citations Research Methods and Data College of Advancing Studies Brendan A. Rapple
Late Assignment Policy • The final paper MUST be handed in by 12 December, the final day of class. • The grade for the assignment will be reduced by 20% each day or fraction of a day that the assignment is late. • So, it’s not worth it to be late!!
Title/Cover Page • Title • Author's name, address, phone no., e-mail, fax no., etc. • Name of course, the institution etc. • Name of instructor • Date
Executive Summary (i.e. Abstract) • Include one! • It’s often written last
Introduction • You should have a separate introductory section. • This should provide the background, the rationale for the lit review. • Detail carefully the topic of your lit review: what is it; what are its parameters; what are its limits; any time frame etc., etc.? • You might want to mention why are you are interested in this topic. • Why do you feel the study is important and/or necessary. • Anything else in the introduction that you consider relevant. • At any rate, the Introduction shouldn’t be very long.
Bibliography • Normal scholarly process. • Should include all resources used in the literature review. • Should adopt a particular style, e.g. MLA, APA, Chicago etc. -- style must be consistent. • Helps the reader to form an opinion of the quality of the sources available (and your ability to find them).
Appendices • Charts, graphs and other information which may interfere with the flow of the proposal or lengthen it may be placed in the appendices.
Images • Feel free to add images to your paper if you consider them relevant.
Subheadings • Use subheadings to clarify the structure • they break up the material into more readable units. • they give the reader a place to "dive in" if she doesn't want to read all of the material.
Simple, Straightforward Writing Style • Don’t adopt some artificial pose • Be clear, concise, to the point • Be as normal as possible in your writing style • Don’t appear as a poseur
Use simple, direct language(thanks to Simon Peyton Jones slide: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:gxm-Sgjzn9cJ:www.cs.iastate.edu/~honavar/Peyton-Jones-Writing.ppt+%22research+paper%22+filetype:ppt&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us )
Leave Time for Revision • Ask a friend or friends to read your paper for a more objective reaction. • Ask them to read the paper for argument, style, persuasiveness, and general flow. • Make appropriate content and reasoning changes and check spelling, grammar, punctuation, footnotes, bibliography. • A good revision cannot happen an hour before the completed paper must be submitted!
Word-Processing Programs • Spell-checks and grammar-checks will catch many errors. • Still, if you write "Charlemange was crowed on Christmas Day, 800 AD” instead of “Charlemange was crowned on Christmas Day, 800 AD,” the computer won't catch it. • Nor will it catch: "The explorers became extremely famished after they returned to London from Borneo" instead of "The explorers became extremely famous after they returned to London from Borneo"!
The computer does not always distinguish between the correct and incorrect usage of, e.g.: • "their" and "there" • "to" and "too" • "its" and "it's " • "complement" and "compliment" • and countless other errors.
Proofreading • Traditional proofreading is still important. • Dedicated proofreaders read the text backwards (a ruler under the words can help detect misspellings.
Terms -- Definitions • Remember that you, the author, are familiar with the research topic but that the reader is probably not! • Useful to define major terms at their first use: consider italicizing the definitions with italics.
Main Body of Paper: Connection Phrases As you are introducing other experts’ ideas in your paper, it’ll be useful to use such phrases as • In the words of . . . • According to . . . • Recent research findings point to/prove/substantiate . . . • In a recent study by… • Most research proves that… • Etc., etc., etc.
When Do I Have to Cite? [The following seven slides are borrowed from Brian Gatten’s presentation “Avoiding Plagiarism” http://lib.utexas.edu/services/instruction/resources/plagiarism_final.ppt. ] Consider the following scenarios and decide whether or not you have to provide a citation for the information described.
Cite it? a) You read the phrase “cultural tapeworm” in an article. You decide to use it in your paper. Is a citation required?
Cite it? a) You read the phrase “cultural tapeworm” in an article. You decide to use it in your paper. Cite it! Any unusual phrase borrowed from another writer or speaker must be cited, no matter the length. Harris, Robert A. "Using Sources Quiz." The Plagiarism Handbook. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2001. 143-144.
Cite it? b) You quote from an interview you conducted with your grandmother. Is a citation required?
Cite it? b) You quote from an interview you conducted with your grandmother. Cite it! Whenever you quote someone else’s words, you must cite them, regardless of your relationship to that person. Harris, Robert A. "Using Sources Quiz." The Plagiarism Handbook. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2001. 143-144.
Cite it? c) In a paper, you write, “Abraham Lincoln grew up in a log cabin without electricity.” This is a fact you have read many times in the past and you now do not remember where. Is a citation required?
Cite it? c) In a paper, you write, “Abraham Lincoln grew up in a log cabin without electricity.” This is a fact you have read many times in the past and you now do not remember where. Do not have to cite it. This is considered common knowledge that can be found in many sources. Harris, Robert A. "Using Sources Quiz." The Plagiarism Handbook. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2001. 143-144.
Cite it? d) You’re writing about global warming. On a website, you locate a graph illustrating the effects of climate change and paste it into your paper. Is a citation required?
Cite it? d) You’re writing about global warming. On a website, you locate a graph illustrating the effects of climate change and paste it into your paper. Cite it! Photographs, drawings, graphs, and other visual materials are forms of ideas and their creators should be credited, whether the item is in a book or found online. Harris, Robert A. "Using Sources Quiz." The Plagiarism Handbook. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2001. 143-144.
What Sources Do Need to be Cited? Words or ideas that you are using that you located in a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV program, movie, Web page, computer program, letter, advertisement, or any other medium. Information you gain through interviewing or conversing with another person, face to face, over the phone, or in writing. When you copy the exact words or a unique phrase. When you use another’s diagrams, illustrations, charts, pictures, or other visual materials. When you reuse or repost any electronically-available media, including images, audio, video, or other media. Bottom line: document any words, ideas, or other productions that originate somewhere outside of you. Stolley, Karl. "Avoiding Plagiarism." The OWL at Purdue. 18 Sept. 2007. Purdue University. 11 Oct. 2007 <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/02>.
What Sources Do Not Need to be Cited? Writing your own lived experiences, your own observations and insights, your own thoughts, and your own conclusions about a subject When you are using "common knowledge," things like folklore, common sense observations, myths, urban legends, and historical events (but not historical documents) When you are using generally-accepted facts, e.g., pollution is bad for the environment. Stolley, Karl. "Avoiding Plagiarism." The OWL at Purdue. 18 Sept. 2007. Purdue University. 11 Oct. 2007 <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/02>.
APA Documentation – Why? • APA style provides a standard system for giving credit to others for their contribution to your work. • It's what is called a "parenthetical" documentation style, i.e. citations to original sources appear in your text. • The reader sees immediately where your information comes from. • It saves you the trouble of having to make footnotes or endnotes.
APA Documentation Formatting The appearance of your printed paper may seem like a small detail compared to all of the hard work you've put into writing it, but a well-formatted paper is easier to read, easier to revise, and just looks better than a paper that's been typed hurriedly and haphazardly.
Paper • Use one kind of good quality white paper, size 8 1/2" x 11". • Use the same font for the entire paper. • Use only one side of the paper.
Page Numbering Starting with the second page, place consecutive page numbers at the upper right-hand corner of the page, at least 1 in. (whatever your right margin is) from the right edge of the page, between the top of the page and the first line of text (the default setting on most word-processing programs, 1/2 in. from the top of the page, is acceptable). Usually no page numbers on the title page
Margins Use uniform margins at least 1 in. from the top, bottom, and sides of every page.
Spacing Double-space all text throughout the manuscript, including the title page and reference page.
Punctuation • Generally, leave one space between words and one space after every comma, semi-colon, or colon. • At the end of a sentence one may have either one or two spaces whether the sentence ends with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark. Be consistent. • However, NO space should be left in front of a punctuation mark; for example, the following would be incorrect: • What dismal weather ! • "Why me ? "
Justification • Feel free to right justify your paper
Page Headers • Feel free to include a "running head" or short title on the top of each page. • For example, if the title of your paper is “An Analysis of Literary Creativity in Adolescent Girls," your running head might be "Literary Creativity."
Indentation Use the tab key to indent the first lines of paragraphs and all lines of block quotes five to seven spaces or 1/2 in.
Long Quotations Place quotations of 40 or more words in block form: Indent the entire quotation five to seven spaces, or 1/2 in. (the same distance you indent the first line of a paragraph). Block quotations are often introduced with a colon:
An example of an actual block quotation and its introduction According to Greenberg (2001), two different criteria were proposed to determine brain death: the "higher-brain" and the "whole-brain" concepts. He describes the higher-brain formulation as follows: A brain-dead person is alleged to be dead because his neocortex, the of consciousness, has been destroyed. He has thus lost the ability to think and feel -- the capacity for personhood -- that makes us who we are, and our lives worth living. (pp. 37-38)
Text in APA Style Big Business in Art The buoyant late-1990s economy has created a bull market in high-priced art, especially in New York (“Fresco Frenzy,” p. 76). For example, Art in America writer Walter Robinson (1996) reported that in the fall of 1995, the leading auction houses, Sotheby's and Christie's, moved a combined $300 million in fine art, more than in any year since 1990 (p. 19). Leading the herd is Microsoft's Bill Gates, who bought Winslow Homer's Lost on the Grand Banks in 1998 for $30 million, the record for an American painting. Gates's other recent high-profile purchases include a $30+ million Leonardo da Vinci manuscript (Luscombe, 1998). According to Carol Vogel (1998), the Homer sale was followed shortly by another record, the highest price ever paid for an Andy Warhol work, as his Orange Marilyn went for over $17 million. Sotheby's called the Warhol "a wise buy. . . . It will soon be worth as much as a Picasso or any landmark work of this century" (p. A27). Will a new all-time price record be set soon? If so, the buyer will need deep pockets to top the $82.5 million commanded by Van Gogh's portrait of Dr. Gachet (Luscombe, 1998). Source: http://acadweb.snhu.edu/documenting_sources/apa.htm
Works Cited/Reference/Bibliography List Title: Type the word “References” at the top of a new page, centered. Spacing: All entries should be double-spaced. Indention: Use hanging indents (first line flush left, following lines five spaces indent). Capitalization: Capitalize only the first word of titles of books and articles and the first word after a colon.
Works Cited or Reference List Articles: One author Roy, A. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Child and Family Studies, 141, 171-177. Articles: Two Authors Adkins, A., & Singh, N. N. (2001). Reading level and readability of patient education materials in mental health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10, 1-8. Journal Article with six authors Utley, C. A., Reddy, S. S., Delquadri, J.C., Greenwood, C.R., Mortweet, S.L., & Bowman, V. (2001). Class-wide peer tutoring: An effective teaching procedure for facilitating the acquisition of health education and safety facts with students with developmental disabilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 1-27.
Journal Article in press Smith, R. W., Huber, R. A., & Shotsberger, P. G. (in press). The impact of standards guided equity and problem solving institute on participating science teachers and their students. North Carolina Journal of Teacher Education.
Article in Internet-only Journal Greenberg, M.T., Domitrovich, C., & Bumbarger, B. (2000, March 30). Prevention of mental disorders in school-aged children: Current state of the field. Prevention and Treatment, 4, 1. Retrieved 9 December, 2009, from http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume4/pre0040001a.html