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Paper Identification 101

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  1. PaperIdentification 101 Nic Butler, Ph.D. Charleston County Public Library Special Collections

  2. What is Paper?

  3. What is Paper? • Paper = a thin mat of intertwining fibers

  4. What is Paper? • Paper = a thin mat of intertwining fibers • Typically made from vegetable fibers composed of cellulose

  5. What is Paper? • Paper = a thin mat of intertwining fibers • Typically made from vegetable fibers composed of cellulose • Paper begins as a fibrous pulp separated from wood, cotton, grass, etc., by a mechanical or chemical or process

  6. What is Paper? • Paper = a thin mat of intertwining fibers • Typically made from vegetable fibers composed of cellulose • Paper begins as a fibrous pulp separated from wood, cotton, grass, etc., by a mechanical or chemical process • Paper is an organic substance that breaks down over time and can become weak, brittle, and discolored

  7. Outline • Handmade Paper • Machine-made Paper • Blue Paper • Newspaper • “Acidic” Paper • Kraft Paper • Ph Testing • Shameless Self-Promotion

  8. Handmade Paper

  9. Screening Pulp from a Vat

  10. Drying sheets of paper

  11. Laid Paper

  12. Laid Paper • Made one sheet at a time in a frame or mould

  13. Laid Paper • Made one sheet at a time in a frame or mould • Laid lines = Closely-spaced parallel lines formed by rows of metal wires in the mould

  14. Laid Paper • Made one sheet at a time in a frame or mould • Laid lines = Closely-spaced parallel lines formed by rows of metal wires in the mould • Chain lines = Bolder parallel lines about one to two inches apart formed by thicker wires that secure the laid wires to the mould

  15. Laid Paper • Made one sheet at a time in a frame or mould • Laid lines = Closely-spaced parallel lines formed by rows of metal wires in the mould • Chain lines = Bolder parallel lines about one to two inches apart formed by thicker wires that secure the laid wires to the mould • Watermark = Distinguishable letter, image, or symbol incorporated into paper during the manufacturing process

  16. Laid Paper • Made one sheet at a time in a frame or mould • Laid lines = Closely-spaced parallel lines formed by rows of metal wires in the mould • Chain lines = Bolder parallel lines about one to two inches apart formed by thicker wires that secure the laid wires to the mould • Watermark = Distinguishable letter, image, or symbol incorporated into paper during the manufacturing process • Grain is parallel to the chain lines

  17. A Paper Mould

  18. A Paper Mould Laid Lines

  19. A Paper Mould Laid Lines Chain Line

  20. A Paper Mould Laid Lines Water Mark Chain Line

  21. Viewing a watermark

  22. Watermark designs

  23. 1742 English Book

  24. 1742 English Book

  25. 1742 Book: laid & chain lines

  26. 1742 Book: watermark

  27. Machine-Made Paper

  28. Fourdrinier Machine

  29. Fourdrinier Machine • 1798: continuous paper-making machine developed in France

  30. Fourdrinier Machine • 1798: continuous paper-making machine developed in France • 1804–7: first machines built in England

  31. Fourdrinier Machine • 1798: continuous paper-making machine developed in France • 1804–7: first machines built in England • 1817: machine imitated in U.S.

  32. Fourdrinier Machine • 1798: continuous paper-making machine developed in France • 1804–7: first machines built in England • 1817: machine imitated in U.S. • 1827: first true Fourdrinier machine in U.S.

  33. Fourdrinier Machine • 1798: continuous paper-making machine developed in France • 1804–7: first machines built in England • 1817: machine imitated in U.S. • 1827: first true Fourdrinier machine in U.S. • Basis of modern papermaking machines

  34. Fourdrinier Machine, 1850s

  35. Fourdrinier Machine, early 1900s

  36. Rolls of modern paper

  37. Wove Paper

  38. Wove Paper • All machine-made paper is wove paper

  39. Wove Paper • All machine-made paper is wove paper • Pulp is poured or sprayed onto a continuous wire mesh conveyor mounted on rollers

  40. Wove Paper • All machine-made paper is wove paper • Pulp is poured or sprayed onto a continuous wire mesh conveyor mounted on rollers • Uniform wire mesh creates even density

  41. Wove Paper • All machine-made paper is wove paper • Pulp is poured or sprayed onto a continuous wire mesh conveyor mounted on rollers • Uniform wire mesh creates even density • Watermark can be created by using a “dandy roll” (with a soldered wire pattern)

  42. Wove Paper • All machine-made paper is wove paper • Pulp is poured or sprayed onto a continuous wire mesh conveyor mounted on rollers • Uniform wire mesh creates even density • Watermark can be created by using a “dandy roll” (with a soldered wire pattern) • Grain is harder to determine, but is usually parallel to the length of the sheet

  43. 1816 Wove Paper

  44. 1817 Laid Paper

  45. “Dandy Roll” Creates a watermark on wove paper

  46. Wove Paper Watermark (1823)

  47. Wove Paper Watermark (1823)

  48. Wove Paper Watermark (1823)

  49. Blue Paper

  50. Early Blue Paper