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IDENTIFICATION

IDENTIFICATION

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IDENTIFICATION

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  1. IDENTIFICATION Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA

  2. Anthropometry- Bertillonage • Habitual Criminals Register- Great Britain • 1882- Anthropometry introduced by Alphonse Bertillon • Based on measurements of – total height, span of arms, ht. of trunk, length & width of head, length & width of right ear, length of left foot, left middle & ring finger, left forearm • 1888- Dept of Judicial Identity • Probability- 1 in 4 million

  3. Evolution of finger print as identification tool • 1820- Prof Johann Purkinje • 1860- William Herschel • Same period- Dr Henry Faulds reported in 1880 • 1891- Francis Galton published paper on classification of finger prints • Edward Henry-simple classification • 1914- Alphonse Bertillon died a shattered man

  4. FINGER PRINTS

  5. Fingerprint / Dactylography / Dermatoglyphics • Dactylography is the process of taking impressions of the pulp of fingers and thumbs on an unglazed white paper and examining them with a magnifying lens.

  6. Principle • Fingers covered with characteristic ridges – permanent & unique • Different even in twins • Locard’s principle of exchange When 2 objects come in contact with each other, there will be always a mutual transference of material from each other

  7. Arches

  8. Loops

  9. Whorl & Mixed (Composite)

  10. Classification • 4 basic fingerprint patterns: Loop – 65 % Whorl – 25 % Arch – 7 % Composite (Mixed) – 3 % • Arches : plain arches or tented arches. • Loops : radial or ulnar, depending on the side of the hand the tail points towards. • Composites: central pocket loop, double loop, accidentals

  11. Points for comparison • Presence of center [core] and triangle [delta] in the print • Presence of pores [poroscopy] • Minutae of ridges- ridge ending, bifurcation, spur formation, dots, lakes, broken ridge, short ridge etc 16 -20 points of fine comparison are accepted as proof of identity

  12. Recording of fingerprints • Plain impression: Gentle pressing of inked surface of tip of finger / thumb on the paper • Rolled impression: Rolling the inked finger / thumb from side to side • In criminals: Impressions of all the digits of both the hands are taken & preserved by police for future identification • In dead body: dried finger tips (soaked in an alkaline solution); if skin peeled off (dermis or peeled-off skin hardened by formalin)

  13. Latent print: Although the word latent means hidden or invisible, in forensic science the term latent prints means any chance or accidental impression on a surface, regardless of whether it is visible or invisible at the time of deposition • Plastic print: A finger or palm impression deposited in a material that retains the shape of the ridge detail. Example: Soft matrrials like wax, soap, clay, etc. • Visible print : impression on blood, paint, dust, dye which can be recorded by photography

  14. Poroscopy • Study of pores of sweat glands in the papillary ridges of epidermis • Number of pores, their size, shape & site in a given length of a ridge - individualistic

  15. Foot prints Study of impressions of foot Comparison of Dermatoglyphics Measurements of parts Stature = max foot length/ 0.15 Walking foot print Recorded by photographs / casts

  16. Scars • Acquired defect • Result of repair mechanism • Covered by epithelium • Devoid of pigmentation, sweat glands, hair follicles • MLI: identification, nature of injury, causative agent, age of scar

  17. Cheiloscopy Study of lip prints Linear Bifurcate Reticular Undetermined 24 individual characteristics

  18. Rugoscopy • Study of palatal rugae Protected from Trauma Individual Do not change during growth • Harrison Allen (1889) • Primary rugae, secondary rugae, fragmented rugae

  19. Forensic Odontology (Forensic Dentistry) • Identification: Comparing antemortem (AM) & postmortem (PM) records • burnt,mutilated, decomposing remains • Estimation of age • Race, occupation, sex • Bite marks • Diagnosis of poisoning

  20. 6. The finger print system (dactylography) was devised by a) H.H. Asquith . b) Francis Galton. c) Alphonse Bertillon d) Edward Henry

  21. 8. The term “latent fingerprint” refers to a) Invisible fingerprint on any surface that requires developing . b) Visible fingerprinting made on soft surface c) Visible print made by finger contaminated with blood, paint etc. d) all the above

  22. 9. One of the following is NOT a type of fingerprint a) Circle . b) Loop c) Arch d) Whorl

  23. For positive identification by comparing fingerprints, the minimum number of points of similarity of minutiae is a) 4-5 b) 6-10 c) 11-15 d) 16-20

  24. 11. Fingerprint impressions left by fingers contaminated by blood or paint at a scene of crime are referred to as a) Visible prints. b) Latent prints. c) Plastic prints. d) Chance prints..

  25. 12. Fingerprint impressions left on soft substance such as wax or clay at a scene of crime are a) Visible prints. b) Latent prints. c) Plastic prints. d) Chance prints..

  26. 13. Of all the patterns of fingerprints, the commonest pattern is a) Arch b) Loop. c) Whorl. d) Composite

  27. 14. Cheiloscopy is the study of a) Epidermal ridges. b) Palatal rugae. c) Skull sutures. d) Lip prints .

  28. 15. The study of epidermal ridges and their configuration is referred to as a) Dactylography . b) Dermatoglyphics. c) Anthropometry. d) Rugoscopy .

  29. 16. All the following are types of lip prints EXCEPT a) Linear. b) Bifurcate. c) Reticular. d) Fragmented.

  30. 17. Bertillion system is applicable to : a) Adults. b) Children . c) Infants. d) All of them.

  31. THANK YOU