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PIA 2528 Governance, Local Government and Civil Society Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework See Below- The Model

PIA 2528 Governance, Local Government and Civil Society Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework See Below- The Model. The Model: Civil Society. Local Governance and Civil Society Decentralization Diagram. Quote of the Week. George Orwell, Burmese Days

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PIA 2528 Governance, Local Government and Civil Society Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework See Below- The Model

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  1. PIA 2528 Governance, Local Government and Civil Society Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework See Below- The Model

  2. The Model: Civil Society • Local Governance and Civil Society • Decentralization Diagram

  3. Quote of the Week • George Orwell, Burmese Days • "Why is it you are always abusing the pukka sahibs as you call them. They are the salt of the earth. Consider the great administrators who have made British India what it is.” • The Issue: History, Empire and Civil Society • Colonial Burma and Civil Society in Myanmar • Authoritarian Legacies

  4. Save the Victims of the Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar (2008)

  5. 1923 Burma Provincial Police Training School, Mandalay (Eric Blair standing third from the left)

  6. Review- Discussion of Themes Democratic Governance and Institutional State • Rule of Law • Transparency • Security • Competitive Elections and Political Parties • Devolved Local Government • Institutional Processes • Interest articulation and aggregation (Competition • Civil Society- Mediation and Social Capital

  7. Social Mediation

  8. Hamilton, Madison and Jay

  9. Madison, Hamilton and Jay and Civil Society • Federalist Papers • Fear of Populism • Minority rights • Shifting majorities • The problem with majorities • Tyranny • Factions

  10. Tyranny

  11. Polyarchy: The Conceptual Framework • Competitive Pluralism • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues • Basis of Economic and Political Competition • Social vs. Economic Liberalism

  12. Social vs. Economic Liberalism?

  13. Polyarchy: Six Principles-Summary • Interest Group Liberalism • Problem of zero-sum game • Civil Society as organizational not individual or the mass. • The need for apathy • Institutional structures: Checks and balances • Constitutional vs. social stability

  14. Civil Society: The Base Point • Civil Society- Networks of organizations, groups and individuals pursuing socio-economic interests • Base point- Governance vs. interests (negative and positive) • Relationship to Private sector

  15. A Positive Image

  16. Review: Civil SocietyThe Nature of the Beast: • Non-Profits • Not for Profits • Private Voluntary Organizations • Community Based Organizations • Civics

  17. Nature of the Beast-Continued • Foundations • Associations • Interest Groups • Quangos

  18. Philanthropy?

  19. Nature of the Beast • The University of Pittsburgh is a Non-Profit • They are not always small

  20. Five Caveats: Civil Society Groups • Usually excludes “for profits”- issue of contractors • Both International and Local • Internationals are not universally loved • Very often internationals are religious or charity based • Focus has been primarily on relief rather than development or civil society goals

  21. Contractors

  22. Types of “Development” NGOs 1. Philanthropy 2. Humanitarian Assistance War, Drought, Agricultural Failure (WWI) Relief and Welfare Societies- Disaster- 3. Populist based development agencies (national)

  23. “Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe”

  24. Types of “Development” NGOs 4. Grassroots associations (local or village based): Focus on Rural Development 5. Advocacy groups: Democracy and Governance 6. Public Service Contractors and Grantees

  25. ARD-Associates in Rural Development and MSI- Management Systems International

  26. International NGOs- Weaknesses 1. Lack of local legitimacy 2. Donor driven 3. Inefficiency 4. Amateurism- leadership and continuity problems 5. Staffing problems

  27. Amateurism?

  28. International NGOs- Weaknesses 6. Self-serving- own objectives: Faith Based 7. Fixation on projects- Problems of replication 8. Lack of perceived accountability 9. Learning problems/lack of institutional memory

  29. German Missionaries in Southwest Africa, 1910 (now Namibia)

  30. Thousand Points of Light George Bush, appearing with victim’s rights advocate Doris Tate at a ceremony in which Tate was named as one of the thousand points of light.

  31. 10. Tensions with government institutions- Politically threatening 11. Ties with existing local elites 12. Inability of humanitarian organizations to transfer to new development orientation International NGOs- Weaknesses

  32. Politically Threatening NGOs • Kenya, 2008- • 2009

  33. Foreign Aid

  34. Break • Ten Minutes

  35. Public Private Partnerships The Twenty-First Century Paradigm

  36. Types of Democracy and Civil Society Representation • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism) • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy • Scandinavian Social Corporatism • Public-Private Partnership?

  37. Nyhavn Copenhagen Denmark

  38. Public-Private Partnerships • U.S. Parallel: Western Pennsylvania

  39. Understanding the Public Sector of Allegheny County Allegheny County is made up of 130 townships and boroughs. Each of these has its own public manager and council. The city of Pittsburgh is part of this mix of local government. Several Thousand non-profits Operating Budget for the County for 2003 is $654 million. This budget provides for such services as: Children and Youth Services Jail/County Police Port Authority District attorney coroner

  40. Demographics of Allegheny County • Total population 1,281,666 • 84% White • 12% African American • 1.7% Asian • 1% Hispanic • 1/10 of 1% Native American • 18% 65+ • 6% under 5 years old

  41. Post-Industrial Patterns

  42. Public-Private Partnerships • Non-Profits Number in W. PA in tens of thousands and • deliver up to two-thirds of the social services of the County in several different sectors

  43. Financial Links: Public Private

  44. Public Private Partnerships:The International Context Defined: Partnerships (formal or informal) between: • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), • Community Based Organizations (CBOs), • Governments, • Donors (International and Private), • Private- Business Sector.

  45. Foreign Aid Links

  46. Public Private Partnerships • Origins- Use in International Development a. International Donors- Way of Dealing with Umbrella Grants and implementation of development policies b. Accepting donor money means accepting donor principles

  47. Public Private Partnerships c. Comes out of Structural Adjustment and Policy Reform (re. LDCs) d. Seen by some as an alternative to Contracting Out- Others as part of it e. Critics see it as detrimental to a market approach to economic change

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