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CVFD Training – FF Safety PPE

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  1. CVFD Training – FF Safety PPE SFFMA Training Objectives: 23-01.01 – 23-01.07

  2. Protective Clothing • Helmet • Protects head from impact • Protects head from scalding water, products of combustion • Protective hood • Protects portions of face, ears, neck not covered by helmet or coat collar (Continued) Firefighter I

  3. Protective Clothing • Protective coat/trousers • Protect trunk, limbs against cuts, abrasions, burn injuries • Protect from heat/cold • Provide limited protection from corrosive liquids (Continued) Firefighter I

  4. Protective Clothing • Gloves • Protect hands from cuts, abrasions, burns • Safety shoes/boots • Protect feet from burns, puncture wounds • Eye protection • Protects wearer’s eyes from hazards (Continued) Firefighter I

  5. Protective Clothing • Hearing protection • Limits noise-induced hearing loss • Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) • Protects face, lungs from heat, smoke, toxic products of combustion and airborne contaminants (Continued) Firefighter I

  6. Protective Clothing • Personal alert safety system (PASS) • Provides audible means by which a lost, trapped, or incapacitated firefighter can be located Firefighter I

  7. DISCUSSION QUESTION How do you feel about wearing personal protective clothing and equipment? Firefighter I

  8. Helmet Characteristics • Benefits • Prevents hot water, embers from reaching ears and neck • Protects head from impact • Protection from heat, cold • Secondary protection of face/eyes with faceshield • Colored helmets, removable shields provide I.D. (Continued) Firefighter I

  9. Helmet Characteristics • Structural fire fighting helmets must have ear flaps or neck covers • Chin straps ensure helmets stay in place upon impact • For secondary face/eye protection, faceshields are attached to helmet Firefighter I

  10. Eye Protection Characteristics • Several styles of safety glasses, goggles available • Frames, lenses should meet ANSI Standard Z87.1 for severe exposure to impact, heat Firefighter I

  11. Hearing Protection Characteristics • Most common use is for firefighters who ride apparatus exceeding maximum noise exposure levels • Intercom/ear protection systems provide dual benefit • Earplugs/earmuffs may be used Firefighter I

  12. Protective Hood Characteristics Typically made of fire-resistant material Provide higher level of protection than facepiece alone when used in conjunction with SCBA Facepiece-to-face seal is important Firefighter I

  13. Turnout Coat Characteristics • NFPA® 1971 requires • Outer shell • Moisture barrier • Thermal barrier • Barriers • Trap insulating air • Provide limited protection (Continued) Firefighter I

  14. Turnout Coat Characteristics • Features that provide additional protection/convenience (Continued) Firefighter I

  15. Turnout Coat Characteristics • Should be cleaned to manufacturer’s specifications, reflective trim maintained to NFPA® standards Firefighter I

  16. Turnout Pant Characteristics • Integral part of protective ensemble, only NFPA®-compliant lower-extremity covering • Considerations in protective coats apply to trousers (Continued) Firefighter I

  17. Turnout Pant Characteristics • Options may increase durability • Must fit properly • Should be cleaned according to manufacturer’s specifications; reflective trim maintained to NFPA® standards Firefighter I

  18. Hand Protection Characteristics • Protect against heat, steam, cold penetration; provides resistance to cuts, punctures, liquid absorption • Must allow dexterity, tactile feel • Must fit properly Firefighter I

  19. Foot Protection Characteristics • Available in variety of styles, materials • Must fit well • Protects from potential hazards • Firefighters should have • Protective boots • Safety shoes (Continued) Firefighter I

  20. Foot Protection Characteristics • Many safety boots incorporate steel for extra protection • Most rubber fire fighting boots have insulation Firefighter I

  21. Wildland Personal Protective Clothing Characteristics • Includes gloves, goggles, brush jackets/pants or one-piece jumpsuits, long-sleeve shirts, head/neck protection, footwear, respiratory protection (Continued) Firefighter I

  22. Wildland Personal Protective Clothing Characteristics • Gloves usually made of leather, must provide wrist protection • Cuffs of sleeves/pant legs closed snugly • Fabric is treated cotton or other flame-resistant material • Hard hats/helmets with chin straps must be worn (Continued) Firefighter I

  23. DISCUSSION QUESTION Why should firefighters never wear clothing made of synthetic materials, such as nylon or polyester, when fighting a fire? Firefighter I

  24. Wildland Personal Protective Clothing Characteristics • Acceptable footwear varies • Lace-up safety boots with lug/grip-tread soles most often used • Boots should be at least 8 to 10 inches (200 to 250 mm) • Steel toes NOT recommended Firefighter I

  25. Station/Work Uniform Characteristics • Should meet requirements of NFPA® 1975 • Designed to be fire-resistant but not to be worn for fire operations Firefighter I

  26. DISCUSSION QUESTION Why is it important that the manufacturer’s recommendations for the care and maintenance of personal protective clothing be followed whenever cleaning or repairing protective clothing? Firefighter I

  27. Considerations for Use and Limitations of PPE • Removing liner of turnout coat compromises effectiveness • Wearing PPE may increase risk of heat stress • Firefighters may suffer burns with no warning (Continued) Firefighter I

  28. Considerations for Use and Limitations of PPE • Structural PPE provides no CBRNE protection • Decreased ability to feel ambient heat • Damaged PPE causes greater risk • Using appropriate PPE is only way to be properly protected Firefighter I

  29. Care of Personal Protective Clothing • Must be maintained according to manufacturer’s specifications • If contaminated, should not be worn until properly laundered according to manufacturer’s recommended procedure (Continued) Firefighter I

  30. Care of Personal Protective Clothing • Care of helmets • Cleaning considerations Firefighter I

  31. DISCUSSION QUESTION How should contaminated protective clothing be washed and handled? Firefighter I

  32. Respiratory Hazards • IDLH atmospheres • OSHA considers the interior of a burning building to be an IDLH atmosphere (Continued) District Chief Chris E. Mickal, NOFD Photo Unit Firefighter I

  33. Respiratory Hazards • Four common hazards • Oxygen deficiency • Elevated temperatures • Smoke • Toxic atmosphere (with and without fire) Firefighter I

  34. Oxygen Deficiency • Combustion process consumes oxygen while producing toxic gases • Deficiencies can occur in below-grade locations, chemical storage tanks, etc. • Oxygen-deficient atmosphere — One containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen (Continued) Firefighter I

  35. Oxygen Deficiency • Some departments are equipped to monitor atmospheres, measure hazards directly • Where monitoring is impossible or readings questionable, SCBA should be worn Firefighter I

  36. Elevated Temperatures • Exposure to heated air can damage respiratory tract • Excessive heat taken quickly into lungs can cause serious decrease in blood pressure, failure of circulatory system (Continued) Firefighter I

  37. Elevated Temperatures • Inhaling heated gases can cause pulmonary edema, which can cause death from asphyxiation • Tissue damage from inhaling hot air is not immediately reversible; prompt medical treatment needed Firefighter I

  38. Smoke • Consists of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon particles, other products • Particles enable condensation of gaseous products of combustion • Some particles in smoke irritating; others lethal Firefighter I

  39. Toxic Atmospheres Associated With Fire • Inhaled toxic gases may have several harmful effects on human body • Some gases cause impaired lung function • Other gases pass into bloodstream and impair oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells (Continued) Firefighter I

  40. Toxic Atmospheres Associated With Fire • Type, amount of toxic gases released at fire vary according to • Nature of combustible • Rate of heating • Temperature of evolved gases • Oxygen concentration • Carbon monoxide Firefighter I

  41. Toxic Atmospheres Not Associated With Fire • Many industrial processes use extremely dangerous chemicals • Because presence is likely, require use of SCBA • Hazardous materials • Common calls may also require SCBA • When in doubt, wear SCBA Firefighter I

  42. Physical Factors Affecting Use of Respiratory Protection • Physical condition • Agility • Facial features Firefighter I

  43. DISCUSSION QUESTION What is the impact of poor physical condition on SCBA use? Firefighter I

  44. Medical Factors Affecting Use of Respiratory Protection • Neurological functioning • Muscular/skeletal condition • Cardiovascular conditioning • Respiratory functioning Firefighter I

  45. Mental Factors Affecting Use of Respiratory Protection • Adequate training in equipment use • Self-confidence • Emotional stability Firefighter I

  46. Limitations of SCBA Equipment • Limited visibility • Decreased ability to communicate • Increased weight • Decreased mobility Firefighter I

  47. Limitations of SCBA Air Supply • Physical conditions of user • Degree of physical exertion • Emotional stability of user • Condition of apparatus • Cylinder pressure before use • Training/experience of user Firefighter I

  48. DISCUSSION QUESTION How can training and experience be a limited factor for SCBA use? Firefighter I

  49. Air Management • Air supply left after low-air alarm sounds may not allow enough exit time • Comply with accountability system in use, maintain situational awareness, manage air supply • Responsibility for safety rests with firefighter Firefighter I

  50. Basic Elements to Effective Air Management • Know point of no return • Know how much air is available • Make conscious decision to stay or leave when air down to 50 percent Firefighter I