APA Style (6th edition) Dr. David Burkholder March 3rd 2010
Purpose of this Presentation • The new manual is close to 250 pages in length, so tonight is a condensed review of important information for students
Follow Along • At times during the presentation I will be addressing points that are shown on the sample paper.
Generalities • Typed, double spaced; do not use extra spaces between paragraphs; 8.5 X 11 paper • 1” margins all around • Times New Roman 12 point font • Left justified • Three sections of paper—title page, body, references (generally no abstract unless otherwise specified by your professor) • Two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence is recommended for ease of reading comprehension (p. 88 in manual and APA website) • Use of headings
Generalities • Beginning of each paragraph indented 5 characters (1/2 inch) • “Running head” designation in the upper left hand corner on title page followed by colon, followed by an abbreviated version of your title in ALL CAPS (this is the actual running head) • The running head is to be no more than 50 characters • On subsequent pages, only the running head in all caps appears in the upper left corner, flush left (remove “Running head” and colon) • Numbering—pages are numbered consecutively throughout your paper starting with 1 on the title page; numbers are in the upper right corner, flush right • On first page after title page, restate the full title, centered, uppercase and lowercase, double spaced (NOT bold), at the top of the page
Title Page • Title: A concise statement of the main topic of your paper identifying the variables or theoretical issues under investigation (no more than 12 words); centered, uppercase and lowercase letters, positioned in the upper half of the page • Author’s name: The preferred form is first name, middle initial(s), and last name; centered, double-spaced below title • Institutional affiliation: Identifies the location where the author or authors were when the research was conducted; centered, double-spaced below author’s name • Running head designation and running head: The running head designation is simply “Running head:”; the running head is an abbreviated version of your title, no more than 50 characters, in all capital letters. Upper left-hand corner of title page, flush left • Page Number: Page numbering begins with 1 on the title page; upper right hand corner, flush right
Contents (The Body) • Aim for smooth, clear and logical communication (having someone else read it, putting your manuscript down and returning to it later, and reading it aloud can help). Use transitional language within and between paragraphs, and use verb tense consistently. Past tense for literature review, present tense for discussing implications. • Economy of expression—say only what needs to be said • It is generally useful to organize your manuscript with headings…headings also help to track the development of your paper. APA uses five levels of headings. • Paraphrasing is more desirable than direct quotations
Contents (The Body) • Quotations must include reference AND page number(s) (from the original source) • Quotations shorter than 40 words are in text, in double quotation marks • Quotations 40 words or more require a block quotation, indented 5 characters from the left margin • Periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks • Use numerals to express numbers 10 and above. Use words to express numerals below 10 and when beginning a sentence: Forty students improved, three did not improve, and 25 remained unchanged.
In Text Citations • Do not use footnotes or endnotes • Follow the author-date method of in-text citation: The author’s last name and year of publication should appear in text, and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names • If referring to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters or longer • After a colon or dash in the title, capitalize the first word • Use italics for the titles of books, periodicals, films, videos, TV shows, and microfilms publications (within text). In general, use italics infrequently • In cases of multiple authors, join the authors’ names with the word “and” if you are referring to them in the text; join the authors’ names with an ampersand (&) if you are referring to them in a parenthetical citation • Within a paragraph, when the name of the author/authors is part of the narrative, the year is not needed if it has already been referenced. However, parenthetical references need to include the year.
In Text Citations • One work, one author: Johnson (2010) found that locus of control… Student retention at doctoral level institutions (Jones, 2008)… • One work by two authors: Cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text: Smith and Jones (2008) reported that… Epidemiological samples were found to be consistent (Packer & Rupert, 2004). • When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year: Hall, Parker, and Paul (2010) found that… Hall et al. (2010) found that… • When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year. In the reference list, include all authors. • Final note: Table 6.1 on page 177 gives many basic citation styles
In Text Citations • Two or more works with the same parentheses: Order the citations alphabetically in the same order they appear in the reference list, separated by a semicolon: Several studies (Smith & Reed, 2003; Walter, 2004) showed that… • Secondary sources: Use secondary sources sparingly (e.g. when the original work is out of print or not available in English). Give the secondary source in the reference list. In text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source: Murphy’s diary (as cited in Forman, 2002), revealed…
Reference List • In the back of the paper, on a separate page titled References (NOT Works Cited, Bibliography), list all the sources cited and quoted in the paper • Make sure you list ALL your sources referred to in the body of the paper • All references listed alphabetically, by first author • Only author’s last name and initials are provided (invert all authors’ names)
Reference List • The title of a journal article is not capitalized (except the first word and any word after a colon) or italicized; the full name of the journal IS italicized and uppercase/lowercase • The volume number IS italicized • The name of a book is italicized and not capitalized (except the first word and any word after a colon) • One author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication, earliest first: Jones, C. (2002). Jones, C. (2008).
Reference List—DOI • Digital object identifiers • Developed by a group of international publishers • Provides a means of persistent identification for managing information on digital networks (see http://www.doi.org/). • The DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to identify content and provide a persistent link to it’s location on the Internet • All DOI numbers begin with 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash • The APA manual recommends that when DOI numbers are available, use them in the reference list.
Examples (there are 77 in the manual) • Journal article with DOI • Journal article • Magazine article • Newspaper article • Entire book, print version • Book chapter • Paper presentation or poster session • Dissertation or thesis, unpublished • Review of a book • Online journal article (no DOI)
Examples • Video • Podcast • Music recording • Blog post • Video blog post
Reducing Bias in Writing • Issues such as gender, sexual orientation, racial and ethnic identity, disabilities, and age are found on pp. 71-77. Please examine.
Resources • 1. The manual itself (available for purchase and available at the library) • 2. www.apastyle.org: This website has many resources including sample papers and tutorials • 3. The Owl at Purdue: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/