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Natural Cover Fires

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Natural Cover Fires

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  1. Natural Cover Fires

  2. view from the west View looking west at the Head of the Fire

  3. TOPICS - Wildland PPE - Apparatus - Wildland Tools - Topography and Fuels - Scene Size-Up - Fire Attack - Safety

  4. WILDLAND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

  5. WILDLANDPPE • Lightweight • Less restrictive • Bunker Gear Issues

  6. WILDLAND PPE • Able to withstand radiant heat • Constructed of Nomex and Kevlar • Will burn in direct contact with fire

  7. WILDLANDPPE • Your wildland PPE should consist of: • Protective Boots • Wildland Pants • Wildland Coat • Gloves • Helmet • Eye Protection

  8. WILDLAND PPE • Wildland Boots should be: • Leather • Eight inches high • Comfortable for the terrain • Wildland Boots should not: • Be made of synthetic material • Have steel toes

  9. WILDLAND TOOLS

  10. Hand Tools • Shovels • Axes • Pulaski • Fire Swatter (Flapper) • Rakes

  11. Mechanical Tools • Back Pack Pumps • Indian Packs • Drip Torch

  12. Power Tools • Chain Saw • Blower

  13. Other Tools • Chains • Flashlights • Forestry Hose • Nozzles • Flares • Thermal Imaging Camera

  14. Tool Care • Clean all tools and hose lines after each use • Check for cracks and splits • Use Linn seed oil on wooden handles • Keep tools sharp • Refill all water, foam, and fuel tanks after use

  15. Apparatus

  16. BRUSH TRUCKS • Light Weight • Four Wheel Drive • Designed for Wildland incidents • Mobile to remote locations • Foam capabilities

  17. Engines • Additional tools • Additional water • Drafting Capabilities • Structural Protection • Foam Capabilities • Stage on Roadways

  18. Tankers • Additional Water • Additional Tools • Structural Protection • Stage on Roadways

  19. General Rules Keep warning lights on Command apparatus/post should be easily identifiable Never ride on the outside of a moving apparatus Driver’s must maintain visual contact with crew working outside of the apparatus

  20. Stage ALL apparatus on the roadways • Be mindful bridge weights on rural roads • Keep doors shut and windows up in apparatus • First Priority • Life Safety then structural protection

  21. Staging Watch for overhead power lines Watch for damages trees/limbs Stay clear of LPG or fuel storage tanks Tactically position apparatus for structural protection Stage apparatus facing escape routes

  22. FUELS, WEATHER, AND TERMS

  23. Fuels • Fuel • Any flammable or combustible substance available for fire consumption • The most common fuels consumed during a natural cover fire: • Grass, brush, trees, and crops • Other fuels encountered: • Structures, vehicles, farm equipment, Hazmat, etc.

  24. Fuels • Surface Fuels • Fuels found on the ground • Aerial Fuels • Fuels on tops of trees and brush • Ladder Fuels • Fuels connecting surface fuels to aerial fuels

  25. Fuels • Light Fuels • Short grass or light brush • Medium Fuels • Brush up to 6 feet high • Heavy Fuels • Thick/dense fuels over 6 feet high

  26. Weather • Wind direction and velocity • Low humidity • High temperatures • Lots of sunshine • Low moisture • Time of day • Day of week

  27. Terms Origin – Area where the fire started Head – Part of the fire with the greatest rate of speed Heel – Opposite end of the head. Also referred to as the “rear” Unburned – Area of Unburned fuel outside or adjacent to the involved area

  28. Black – area that the fire has consumed Flanks – The sides of the fire, roughly parallel to the main direction of the fire spread.

  29. Scene Size-Up

  30. Windshield Size-Up • Establish Command • Ask yourself these questions: • What is burning? Fuel type/load • How much area is currently involved? How much has burned already?

  31. Windshield Size-Up (continued) • How fast is the fire moving? • Are there any exposure concerns? • Do I need additional resources? • Am I staged in a safe area?

  32. Fire Attack

  33. Direct Attack • Hierarchy of tool selection of a crew for “typical” light to medium fuel natural cover fires: • Blower • Rake • Water/Foam

  34. Direct Attack Establish a safe anchor point prior to starting fire attack Start attack by the heel or a natural barrier

  35. Direct Attack Work in tandem to prevent fire from reigniting Give ongoing reports to command

  36. Direct Attack - Crew Crew Leader - Obtains portable radio, rake, and two flares Crew Member - Obtains the blower and its extension tube Additional Crew Member - Obtains an Indian pack/pump pack

  37. Brush Truck Operations Crew Leader - Walks ahead of truck as a spotter, obtains portable Crew Member #1 - Starts pump, drives truck watching other crew members Crew member #2 - Deploys crosslay, walks along truck extinguishing flames

  38. Indirect Attack Controlling the fire by constructing a control line along natural barriers or by removing/burning unburned fuel in the fire’s path

  39. Natural Barriers • Creeks • Rivers • Streams • Dirt • Rock areas

  40. Manmade Barriers • Roadways • Parking lots • Ditches

  41. Back Burning • Method involves burning a fire line ahead of the fire to eliminate fuels for the fire to consume

  42. Indirect Attack - Crew Crew Leader - Obtains portable, drip torch, and two flares Crew Member - Obtains blower and extension tube or a water pack Additional Crew Member - obtains a rake

  43. After the Fire Double check for hot spots Check back in with the IC – entire crew Rehab tools Refill apparatus Terminate command

  44. Safety

  45. Safety • Solid Incident Command • Accountability • Communications • Escape Routes • Safety Zones

  46. Safety In the majority of NCF incidents, there are no lives at risk until the first firefighter arrives Prepare for the worst case scenario Place experienced personnel in crew leader and incident commander roles

  47. Safety • Special Considerations • Fire moving up hills • Power lines • Fences • Above ground fuel tanks • Falling Timber/Limbs • Urban Interface

  48. Safety Concerns • Be mindful of change in wind pattern • Watch for spot fires over your line • Unclear assignment • Crew fatigue

  49. Reminders • Hydrate and rehab as needed • Park on roadways • Do not ride outside of a moving apparatus • Stay with your crew • Stay focused • Call for additional recourses early