The background to recent Eastern European begins with the EU Schengen Agreement in 1985. This abolished border controls between EU / European countries who signed up (the UK did not sign). Schengen enshrines the principle that people are citizens of the Europe and can move freely within it. Background to recent EU migration trends
EU enlargement Enlargement occurred in 2004 when a large number of countries joined: • Malta • Cyprus And the ‘Accession 8’ (A8 countries) former eastern bloc countries: • Estonia • Latvia • Lithuania • Poland • Slovenia • Czech Republic • Slovakia • Hungary These 10 were joined by 2 more former eastern bloc countries in 2007 (A2 countries): Bulgaria and Romania • Romania • Bulgaria Most countries already within the EU chose not to allow free movement of the new EU citizens, into their countries. The exceptions to this were the UK, Ireland and Sweden. As non-Schnegen signatories it should, in theory, be easier for the UK and Ireland to control immigration. Sweden decided migration would be economically beneficial.
The Poles are coming! The compulsory case study for migration to the UK Remember that the UK did not sign the Schengen agreement preferring to control their own borders but allowed migration from the A8 countries who joined the EU in 2004.Only the UK, Ireland and Sweden allowed this so had a massive influx of migration – but this will change as the other EU members have opened their borders and UK may start losing migrants) Over 1 million migrants from eastern Europe have arrived in the UK since 2004 but the largest group have come from Poland 57% of the total
Explain where the most migrants came from and why they are attracted to the UK People come to the UK as it is seen as a tolerant place for migrants, it has many job opportunities, there is a lot of low skilled jobs that need filling (such as vegetable picking) and wages are higher than many in the home country. There are better amenities and services. (A better quality of life, with improved health care and education). There are many established ethnic groups which provide a home from home community.
A8 economic migrants Highest proportion of applicants were Polish (57% of the total), followed by Lithuanian (15%) and Slovak (11%) applicants.
The type of jobs they come over to do 1. Admin & business 36% 2. Hospitality & catering 20% 3. Agriculture 11% 4. Manufacturing 7% 5. Food processing 5% Increase in admin/business Decrease in catering roles • Why? • Unemployment is high in Poland (at 20-35%. 40% of the unemployment is youths - hence why it is younger generations coming to the UK • Low wages – around 40% of the European average (they take mainly low paid jobs in the UK but that is still more than the wages they would get at home)
Polish economic migrants Specific Pull factors The lifting of restrictions in the UK with the A8 countries joining the EU in May 2004 A8 nationals coming to the United Kingdom are legally allowed to work, if registered with the Government's Worker Registration Scheme Polish newspapers full of recruitment adverts from agencies Higher wages egnurses can earn 4 times the amount than back home Free health care – NHS spent £350 million on maternity services for foreign-born mothers Free education Cheap accommodation – the housing in the UK is cheaper and of better quality Ease of migration – Only UK, Ireland & Sweden decided to allow unlimited migration from the new member countries in 2004 Good Exchange rate – migrants send remittances (money) home to their families
Polish economic migrants Specific Push factors Increased insecurity and lower living standards in Poland Unemployment: 20 – 35% 40% youth unemployment rate. Low income levels per capita - around 40% of the European average Cuts in the public sector have meant that workers have faced falling real wages and an intensification of work. A reduction in farm subsidies is on the horizon in the form of the Hausner Plan. Low availability of housing – in 2004 there were 300 dwellings for every 1000 people
The economic push and pull Its clear from this graph why people from the A8 countries are wanting to move to the UK, and in the future to other countries, when their average GDP is so much lower than the original EU15
City of London Boston Westminster Northampton South Holland Peterborough Fenland East Cambridgeshire Herefordshire Dungannon The geographical pattern of Eastern European migrants in the UK Within the UK the A8 migrants are spread out in a totally new pattern but many are concentrated in rural areas as well as cities – which brings problems to those areas as services may be strained.
They settle all over the UK but there is certain areas that they are found in abundance. Hotspot areas include:65000 in the east (vegetable picking), 59000 in London, 51000 in the Midlands and 32000 in Scotland. (fishing industry) Top areas include: City of London Boston (east) Westminster Northampton Peterborough Fenlands East Cambridge Scotland
Impact on population – a crowded island? 60% of immigrants concentrated in SE and London London set to regain ‘mega-city’ status. Ghettoisation an issue So too is volume of housing needed Some areas, such as Scotland will soon see falling populations Concentrations of people born outside the UK
Summary of some key points about migration of Poles to UK: migrants around 30 years old with vocational training or secondary education and some work experience young migrants, just finished vocational training or secondary education: 80% of all A8 migrants to the UK are 18–34 years old; 18–24-year-olds form the largest age group (43% of total migrants) young and unmarried migrants with a tertiary education keen to brush up their language skills and attain some working experience abroad highly-educated specialists with work experience Eastern European migrants who have moved to the UK have done so mainly for work. They include:
The vast majority of the 800,000 to 1 million migrants who have come to the UK since 2004 are from Poland. There are also significant numbers from Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia. These migrants represent 4–5% of the labour force of their source countries (2007). In the past, immigration has tended to concentrate in urban areas. The distribution of A8 migrants is highly unusual. Many have settled in rural areas and work on farms and in food processing. The UK’s A8 rural hotspots are: Boston, Peterborough, Fenland, Herefordshire and Dungannon. In 2007 10% of the people living in some rural areas were immigrants.
Temporary immigrants send about 25% of their earnings home as remittances. Immigrants who plan to settle in the UK send only about 8% home. For Poland, this income amounted to around €6.4 billion in 2006, or 2.5% of Polish gross national income (GNI). Average earnings in the UK for the Poles are only about £6 per hour. There is also a growing problem with worker exploitation as unscrupulous gangs prey on A8 workers. A significant brain drain is also occurring from Poland. For some A8 countries, the loss of its more able workforce is significant.
Update • A large number of the 1.4 million eastern European migrants previously living in the UK left and returned home in 2008, 2009 and 2010. • Almost half of the A8 migrants have returned home, leaving 700,000 in the UK. • The reasons relate to the global economic downturn and social reasons: when it joined the EU in 2004, Poland’s unemployment was at 20%, whereas the British economy was strong and there were plenty of jobs. • The Polish currency (the zloty) has since strengthened against the pound making work in Britain less rewarding for migrants. • But now the UK economy is struggling while Poland’s is actually growing healthily (in fact it is the world’s 20th largest!). • Warsaw has an unemployment rate below that of London and some Polish firms are flourishing and can put together attractive financial offers to entice people back home. • Many young, well-educated Poles have been doing demeaning work in Britain for which they are overqualified. • They are glad to return home for more rewarding employment, closer to their families.
Reading – compulsory case study Poles to UK • Pearson (better) p 106-109 • Philip Allan – p138-140
Migration to the Costas • The Spanish Costas have long been a popular destination for Northern Europeans • 1.8 million properties are foreign owned, with 600,000 of them being British • A lot of them are holiday owned, but a large number are permanent residents • 60% of migrants are over 45, with a large part of this being a retired population, business owners and property speculators
What has lead to people migrating – push and pull factors • Spanish Climate - 10°C warmer than Britain and has less rainfall, with leads to improved health • Lower property prices in Spain and value of properties in UK have increased meaning when these are sold there is a lump sum of money to support them through their retirement • Lower tax rates • 50 – 60% lower utility bills – reduced cost of living • Life style – Laid back, slower pace of life • Lower crime rate and absence of ‘youth’ culture • Family/friends – many have holidayed there or already have family living there • A reduction in ‘distance’ and improved accessibility: • Rise of low cost air lines have made the cost of travelling a lot cheaper so people can afford to fly back to the UK regularly • Long term road building programme in Spain • Increased internet use
Reading and tasks • Pearson (better) p 110- 112 • Philip Allan p 140-141
UK policy on immigration • The policy tries to balance the costs of migration with the benefits and only allows certain migrants: genuine applications, favouring those with skills and education, and the Worker Registration scheme (WRS) allows those who will fill low-skill, low wage gaps. • In 2005/2006 2.75 million applied for a visa to the UK, which is 57% more than in 2001/2002, and around 20% were refused due to forged documents. • In 2008 the UK introduced the 5 Tier points based system from non-EU immigrants: Tier One: Highly skilled -This tier includes entrepreneurs, top scientists and business people. No job offer will be required. Tier two: Skilled with job offer -People with qualifications / work-related experience; job offer in a "shortage area" such as nursing. Tier three: Low skilled -Workers from the expanded European Union, who do not need prior permission to arrive. Tier four: Students - Those paying for tuition in the UK. Tier five: Temporary workers, Youth mobility -Professional sports people or professional musicians, who want to work in the UK for an event such as the Olympics or a football match, or a concert. The youth mobility aspect is intended to cover cultural exchanges or working holidays by young people.
Update! • The new (2010)David Cameron coalition government announced it would be “tough” on migration by cutting net migration to below 100,000 from 300,000 per year. • But it ran into trouble when business leaders announced that a cap on visas for skilled workers – set at 24,100 – was not enough. • Business bosses think that this will threaten the UK’s role as a global hub – and Indian, Chinese and Brazilian TNCs will be unimpressed that they cannot transfer more staff to the UK. • It is becoming harder for government to look tough on migration because fewer Brits are leaving due to the weak pound and fewer opportunities overseas due to the global recession. This means that net migration figure may rise even if fewer immigrants arrive!
Foreigners with a student visa are the largest group of migrants that enter the UK each year. • Universities rely heavily on the high fees paid by foreign students. • Higher tuition fees for UK home students may reduce this dependency in future years. • The government has been looking into possible inappropriate use of student visas eg London Metropolitan University
Total net migration for the UK is still positive. • 512,000 people arrived in the UK during 2008 while 395,000 left. The net balance was an in-flow of 117,000. • So although the rate of net migration is slower, it is still positive. • Campaign group MigrationWatch UK therefore believes the population of the UK will still grow to exceed 70 million within 25 years, even with reduced levels of net immigration. • With fewer Britons leaving to go to Spain (due to the poor exchange rate and greater financial uncertainty) there is less out-migration to offset in-migration • so expect net migration to stay positive for the foreseeable future!
Answering examination questions on migration May 2010 This is a good Section A response that would score full marks: it uses precise examples and answers directly using clear language
Answering examination questions Jan 2010 Now try to attempt part (a) for homework using Figure 10 and some of the information contained in this presentation
P 142-143 Philip Allan • Read! • Then p 113 Pearson Exam practice Qs!