Immigration Mr. Mize
Reason for Immigration • Push factor – condition that drives people from their homeland • Pull factor – condition that attracts people to move to a new area
Immigration late 19th and early 20th centuries lack of farmland in Europe Push Factors fleeing persecution political turmoil famine / poverty • Irish • Italians • Russian Jews • Armenians Mexicans • Irish • Chinese
Push Factors • I. Fleeing Persecution • persecute – to mistreat • From 1880 – 1914 approximately 3 million Russian Jews came to the U.S. in order to escape from pogroms. • pogrom – organized attacks on Jewish villages • Approximately two millions Armenians were killed in the former Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire = modern day Turkey
II. Famine / Poverty • In the 1840’s, over 1 million people died in Ireland due to the Irish Potato Famine. • As a result, over 1.5 million Irish immigrants came to the U.S. by 1860.
III. Political Turmoil • Thousands of Mexicans came to the U.S. in order to escape from violence during the Mexican Revolution.
IV. Lack of Farmland in Europe • Land was scarce in Europe, but it was plentiful in the U.S. German Italian Puerto Rican English Japanese American African Mexican Irish
EllisIsland • From 1892 – 1924, approximately 22 million immigrants entered the United States through Ellis Island, NY
Angel Island • From 1910 to 1940, thousands of immigrants, many of whom were Asian, entered the United States through Angel Island, CA.
Adjusting to America • Most immigrants stayed in the cities where they landed • By 1900, lower Manhattan was the most crowded place in the world.
Ethnic Ghettos • Immigrants adjusted by settling in communities with people of their own ethnic group. A Jewish vendor in Lower East Side, New York City Little Italy, New York City
Adjusting to America • Ethnic Ghettos 1. Spoke native language 2. Celebrated holidays with foods from the “old country.” B. Being with their “own people” made life in America easier C. Needed Jobs 1. Many lived off the land 2. Took low paying jobs -seen as a threat – willing to work for less - workers afraid immigrants would take all of the jobs
Adjusting to America D. Had to learn English 1. Children in school (learned the easiest) 2. Workers E. Children wanted to be seen as Americans 1. Helped family learn English 2. Played American games 3. Wore American clothing
Assimilation • The process whereby a minority group gradually adopts the customs and attitudes of the majority culture. • Assimilation was a long, slow process.
Anti-Immigration Feelings • Many Americans feared that new immigrants would never assimilate. • Asians were prohibited from buying land in California. • Chinese immigrants were frequently attacked, and occasionally killed, by racist mobs. Video: Snake River Massacre (1:50)
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – Video (1 min.) • It barred the immigration of Chinese laborers for 10 years. • It was renewed several times by Congress before being repealed in 1943 by the Supreme Court.
Chinese Exclusion Act • Due to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, Americans on the West Coast looked for laborers from other Asian countries, mainly Japan and the Philippines • Japanese immigrants became successful farmers, also working in lumber mills and mines.
Gentlemen’s Agreement • American farmers and factory workers resented the Japanese immigrants. • Japan agreed to limit the number of workers coming to the United States for 10 years. • The United States agreed to allow the wives of Japanese men already in the U.S. to join them.
Mexican-Americans • Due to revolution and famine, thousands of Mexicans came to the U.S. in 1910. • Mexicans worked in fields, harvesting crops, and helped build area highways.
Mexican-Americans • Mexicans created their own neighborhoods called barrios. • Many Mexicans were victims of prejudice and were attacked frequently.
German - Americans • Against Germans / Austro-Hungarians • Mozart, Bach, Beethoven and Brahms • Berlin, New Hampshire (933-566 vote) • Hamburger – Liberty sandwich (Salisbury Steak) • Sauerkraut – liberty cabbage
Spoils System • practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs • Patronage – practice of giving out government jobs as favors to loyal party workers • Examples: Jobs were frequently given to unqualified people.
Political Machine City Boss – Controlled political party throughout the city Ward Boss (Secured votes, Kickbacks –jobs, contracts, political appointments Local Precinct Workers/Captains (Gained voters support – reports to Ward Boss)
December 9, 2008 ILLINOIS GOVERNOR ARRESTED IN OBAMA SUCCESSOR PROBE RELEASED AFTER COURT APPEARANCE CHICAGO - Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich was arrested on Tuesday on charges he brazenly conspired to sell or trade the U.S. Senate seat left vacant by President-elect Barack Obama to the highest bidder in what a federal prosecutor called a "corruption crime spree."
Garfield • President James Garfield attempted to reform the spoils system. • Believed that civil service jobs should be given to people based on qualification and ability, not political connections. • An angry office seeker assassinated Garfield before he could reform the system.
Civil Service Commission • (1883) - began to award jobs based on the results of an exam.
Progressive Movement • Return control of the government to the people, restore economic opportunity, and correct injustices in American life. • Four Goals • Protect social welfare • Promote moral improvement • Create economic reform • Foster efficiency
How is Progressivism different from the Populist Movement? • Mostly Middle Class • Welfare: • YMCA • Salvation Army • Moral Reform: • Prohibition • Women’s rights • Economy: • Laissez-faire vs. socialism • Efficiency: • Scientific management (assembly line)