1 / 40

Global Marketing and R & D

Global Marketing and R & D. Chapter Seventeen. Kodak entered Russia in the early 1990’s Country was deep in the middle of a turbulent transition from a communist economy to a new democracy Russian consumers had little knowledge of Kodak’s products

Télécharger la présentation

Global Marketing and R & D

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Global Marketing and R & D Chapter Seventeen

  2. Kodak entered Russia in the early 1990’s Country was deep in the middle of a turbulent transition from a communist economy to a new democracy Russian consumers had little knowledge of Kodak’s products The consumer market for photography was underdeveloped Apart from state-run stores, there was little or no infrastructure in place for distributing photographic equipment, film, and processing Consumers were poor and lacked the ability to afford all but the most inexpensive cameras Opening Case

  3. Kodak’s entry into Russia is widely regarded as a major success because it accounts for a significant portion of $2.59 billion in international sales and growth rate of 26% Reasons for Kodak’s success include A clear and consistent marketing message communicated through a number of media They invested in promoting a corporate image as a firm that takes a stand against corruption and black-market practices The product strategy has been to sell lower-end film and cameras in Russia Encouraged major enterprises to give cameras to valued employees Built a distribution channel through franchising Opening Case

  4. Important to determine when product standardization is appropriate in an international market Firms may need to vary marketing mix in each different country Globalization may be the exception rather than the rule in many consumer goods markets and industrial markets The Globalization of Markets and Brands

  5. Refers to identifying distinct groups of consumers whose purchasing behavior differs from others in important ways Segments can based on: Geography Demography Socio-cultural factors Psychological factors Market Segmentation

  6. Two main issues relating to segmentation: Extent of differences between countries in the structure of market segments Existence of segments that transcend national borders Market Segmentation

  7. Cultural differences Economic development Product and technical standards Product Attributes

  8. Differ along dimensions such as social structure, language, religion, and education Impact of tradition Some tastes and preferences becoming cosmopolitan Cultural Differences

  9. Consumer behavior is influenced by economic development Consumers in highly developed countries tend to demand extra performance attributes in their products Price not a factor due to high income level Consumers in less developed countries value basic features as more important Price a factor due to lower income level Cars: no air-conditioning, power steering, power windows, radios, and cassette players Product reliability is more important Economic Development

  10. Government standards can rule out mass production and marketing of a standardized product Differing technical standards constrain globalization of markets Different television signal frequencies Product and Technical Standards

  11. Choice of the optimal channel for delivering a product to the consumer Optimal strategy is determined by the relative costs and benefits of each alternative Depends on differences between countries Retail concentration Channel length Channel exclusivity Distribution Strategy

  12. Typical Distribution System

  13. Concentrated system Common in developed countries Contributing factors: increase in car ownership, number of households with refrigerators and freezers, and two-income households Fragmented system Common in developing countries Contributing factors: great population density with large number of urban centers, e.g. Japan Uneven or mountainous terrain, e.g. Nepal Retail Concentration

  14. Refers to number of intermediaries between the producer and the consumer Determined by degree to which the retail system is fragmented Long distribution channel Short distribution channel Channel Length

  15. Long distribution channel Fragmented retail system promotes growth of wholesalers and retailers Firms go through intermediaries such as wholesalers to cut selling costs Short distribution channel Concentrated retail system Firms deal directly with retailers Channel Length

  16. Degree to which it is difficult for outsiders to access distribution channels Varies between countries Japan - exclusive systems because personal relations, often decades old, play an important role in stocking products Difficult for new firm to get shelf space as compared to an old firm Channel Exclusivity

  17. The optimal strategy is determined by the relative costs and benefits of each alternative Varies from country to country Benefits of a shorter distribution channel The longer the channel, the greater the aggregate markup and the higher the price that consumers are charged for the final product If price is an important competitive weapon the firm might choose a shorter channel Choosing a Distribution Strategy

  18. Benefits of a longer distribution channel Cuts selling costs when the retail sector is fragmented Longer channels can provide increased market access If channel quality is poor, a firm should consider what steps it could take to upgrade the quality of the channel This may include establishing its own distribution channel Choosing a Distribution Strategy

  19. Communication Strategy • Defines the process the firm will use in communicating the attributes of its product to prospective customers Cultural barriers Source effects Noise levels

  20. Cultural Barriers Develop cross-cultural literacy Firm should use local input such as local advertising agency and sales force Source and country of origin effects Receiver of the message evaluates the message based on status or image of the sender Anti-Japan wave in US in 1990’s Place of manufacturing influences product evaluations Often used when consumer lacks more detailed knowledge of the product Examples: French wines, Italian clothes, and German luxury cars Barriers to International Communication

  21. Noise levels Amount of other messages competing for a potential customer’s attention Developed countries - high Less developed countries - low Standardized advertising strategy execution more difficult (culture, laws) Barriers to International Communication

  22. Push strategy emphasizes personal selling Requires intense use of a sales force Relatively costly Pull strategy depends on mass media advertising Can be cheaper for a large market segment Determining factors of type of strategy Product type and consumer sophistication Channel length Media availability Push Versus Pull Strategy

  23. Pull strategy Consumer goods Large market segment Long distribution channels Mass communication has cost advantages Push strategy Industrial products or complex new products Direct selling allows firms to educate users Short distribution channels Used in poorer nations for consumer goods where direct selling only way to reach consumers Product Type and Consumer Sophistication

  24. Pull strategy Long or exclusive distribution channels e.g. Japan Mass advertising to generate demand to pull product through various layers Push Strategy In countries with low literacy levels to educate consumers Channel Length

  25. Pull strategy Relies on access to advertising media Common in developed nations Push strategy Media availability limited by law All electronic media state owned with no commercial policy Media Availability

  26. Global Advertising • Standardized: • Significant economic advantages • Scarce creative talent • Many global brand names • Non-standardized: • Cultural differences • Advertising regulations can be a restriction

  27. Three aspects of international pricing strategy Price discrimination Strategic pricing Regulatory influence on prices Pricing Strategy

  28. Said to occur when consumers in different countries are charged different prices for the same product Two conditions necessary National markets kept separate to prevent arbitrage Capitalization of price differentials by purchasing product in countries where prices are lower and reselling where prices are higher Different price elasticities of demand in different countries Greater in countries with low income levels and highly competitive conditions Price Discrimination

  29. Elastic and Inelastic Demand

  30. Predatory pricing Using price as a competitive weapon to drive weaker competition out of a national market Firms then raise prices to enjoy high profits Firms normally have profitable position in another national market Strategic Pricing

  31. Multipoint pricing strategy Two or more international firms compete against each other in two or more national markets A firm’s pricing strategy in one market may impact a rival in another market Kodak and Fuji Strategic Pricing

  32. Experience curve pricing Firms price low worldwide to build market share Incurred losses are made up as company moves down experience curve, making substantial profits Cost advantage over its less-aggressive competitors Strategic Pricing

  33. Antidumping regulations Selling a product for a price that is less than the cost of producing it Antidumping rules vague, but place a floor under export prices and limit a firm’s ability to pursue strategic pricing Article 6 of GATT allows action against an importer if the product is sold at ‘less than fair value’ and causes ‘material injury to a domestic industry’ Competition policy Regulations designed to promote competition and restrict monopoly practices Regulatory Influences on Prices

  34. Configuring the Marketing Mix Standards Differences Here Competition Distribution Economy Gov’t Regs Culture Product Attributes Pricing Strategy Requires Variation Here Communications Strategy Distribution Strategy

  35. The location of R & D Rate of new product development greater in countries where More money spent on R&D Underlying demand is strong Consumers are affluent Competition is intense New Product Development

  36. Integrating R&D, production and marketing ensures Project development driven by customer needs New products are designed for ease of manufacture Development costs are kept in check Time to market is minimized Integrating R&D, Marketing and Production

  37. High failure rate ratio Between 33 % and 60% of new products fail to earn adequate profits Reasons for failure: Limited product demand Failure to adequately commercialize product Inability to manufacture product cost-effectively Integrating R&D, Marketing and Production

  38. Objective of team to take a product development project from the initial concept development to market introduction Effective teams must have “Heavyweight “ project manager One member from each key function Physically co-located to facilitate communication Clear plan and goals Own process for communication and conflict resolution Cross-Functional Product Development Teams

  39. Global Human Resource Management The Strategic Role of International HRM Staffing Policy Training and Management Development Performance Appraisal Compensation International Labor Relations Looking Ahead to Chapter 18

More Related