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Computer Architecture CSE 3322

Computer Architecture CSE 3322

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Computer Architecture CSE 3322

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  1. Computer Architecture CSE 3322 Lecture 2

  2. Why Study Computer Architecture • Learn to Design Computers • Processors Designed by Few Semiconductor Companies

  3. Why Study Computer Architecture • Learn to Design Computers • Processors Designed by Few Semiconductor Companies • Learn to Design Device Controllers

  4. Why Study Computer Architecture • Learn to Design Computers • Processors Designed by Few Semiconductor Companies • Learn to Design Device Controllers • Learn to Design More Optimum Software!

  5. Why Study Computer Architecture • Learn to Design Computers • Processors Designed by Few Semiconductor Companies • Learn to Design Device Controllers • Learn to Design More Optimum Software! • Learn to Design More Optimum Systems!

  6. How to Improve Application Performance ?

  7. How to Improve Application Performance ? • Algorithm • Language and Compiler • Processor and Memory System • I/O System and Devices

  8. Computer Generations Overview

  9. Computer Generations Overview

  10. Computer Generations Overview

  11. Computer Generations Overview

  12. Computer Generations Overview

  13. Technological Growth • DRAM Growth: 4X Capacity Every 3 Years

  14. Technological Growth • DRAM Growth: 4X Capacity Every 3 Years • Workstation Performance Improvement: 54% per year or 2X every18 months

  15. Technological Growth • DRAM Growth: 4X Capacity Every 3 Years • Workstation Performance Improvement: 54% per year or 2X every18 months • Disk Drive Growth: Capacity More than 2x every year

  16. Technological Growth • DRAM Growth: 4X Capacity Every 3 Years • Workstation Performance Improvement: 54% per year or 2X every18 months • Disk Drive Growth: Capacity More than 2x every year • All Continue to Drive Price /Performance Improvements

  17. · Click The Picture To Share It With Your Friends ·

  18. Five Components of Computers Memory Control Input Datapath Output Processor

  19. Instruction Set Design • Key Element in the Architecture • Function, Cost, Performance, etc.

  20. Instruction Set Design • Key Element in the Architecture • Function, Cost, Performance, etc. • Typical Machine Instructions • Data Transfers ( reg-reg, reg-mem, mem-reg) • Arithmetic (add, subtract, multiply) • Logic & String (boolean, bit manipulations) • Program Control ( branches, jumps) • Input/Output Operations

  21. Instruction Set Design Study the MIPS Architecture

  22. Instruction Set Design Study the MIPS Architecture • A WORD is 32 bits or 4 bytes wide for • Registers and Memory

  23. Instruction Set Design Study the MIPS Architecture • A WORD is 32 bits or 4 bytes wide for • Registers and Memory • Each byte has Memory Address starting at 0

  24. Instruction Set Design Study the MIPS Architecture • A WORD is 32 bits or 4 bytes wide for • Registers and Memory • Each byte has Memory Address starting at 0 • WORD Addresses start at 0 and are multiples of 4

  25. Instruction Set Design Study the MIPS Architecture • A WORD is 32 bits or 4 bytes wide for • Registers and Memory • Each byte has Memory Address starting at 0 • WORD Addresses start at 0 and are multiples of 4 • Big-endian Byte 0, Byte 1, Byte 2, Byte 3 • Little-endian Byte 3, Byte 2, Byte 1, Byte 0

  26. Instruction Set Design Study the MIPS Architecture • A WORD is 32 bits or 4 bytes wide for • Registers and Memory • Each byte has Memory Address starting at 0 • WORD Addresses start at 0 and are multiples of 4 • Big-endian Byte 0, Byte 1, Byte 2, Byte 3 • Little-endian Byte 3, Byte 2, Byte 1, Byte 0 • 32 Registers with Conventions on Use

  27. Memory N bM Registers 31 • 8 b11 b10 b9 b8 • 4 b7 b6 b5 b4 1 0 0 b3 b2 b1 b0 32 bits 32 bits

  28. MIPS Assembly Instructions Instruction Example Meaning add add $s1, $s2, $s3 $s1 = $s2 + $s3 subtract sub $s1, $s2, $s3 $s1 = $s2 - $s3 $s1, $s2, $s3, … are registers. The $ indicates a Register in the MIPS Assembly Language

  29. MIPS Assembly Instructions Instruction Example Meaning add add $s1, $s2, $s3 $s1 = $s2 + $s3 subtract sub $s1, $s2, $s3 $s1 = $s2 - $s3 $s1, $s2, $s3, … are registers. The $ indicates a Register in the MIPS Assembly Language Also $s2 + $s3 $s1

  30. Machine Instruction Format R Type Instruction Instr Format op rs rt rd shamt funct add R 0 reg reg reg 0 32 sub R 0 reg reg reg 0 34 bits 6 5 5 5 5 6 op : opcode rd : register destination operand rs : reg source 1 operand shamt : shift amount rt : reg source 2 operand funct : function code – variant of operation

  31. Machine Instruction Format add $t0, $s2, $t0 where $t0 is reg 8, $s2 is reg 18 $t0 = $s2 + $t0 Instr Format op rs rt rd shamt funct add R 0 18 8 8 0 32 bits 6 5 5 5 5 6

  32. Machine Instruction Format add $t0, $s2, $t0 where $t0 is reg 8, $s2 is reg 18 $t0 = $s2 + $t0 Instr Format op rs rt rd shamt funct add R 0 18 8 8 0 32 bits 6 5 5 5 5 6 Example of Machine Language Instruction op rs rt rd shamt funct 0 18 8 8 0 32 000000 10010 01000 01000 00000 100000