Southwest by Brad Hinch Southwest Desert Indians video
Objective: Students will become knowledgeable about the daily life, traditions and locations of the Southwest Indians of North America. Gasconade County R-2 Schools
The Hogan The Navajo lived in homes called hogans. Hogans were round houses built with forked sticks. The sticks were covered with brush, packed earth, hides, and whatever was available. The front door of the hogan always faced east to catch the first light of the morning sun. Later the Navajo built a six-sided hogan of logs and mud. The hogan always had only one room. Some had tables, chairs, beds, and wood-burning stoves. Outside the home a loom for weaving was set up. It was brought indoors only in the winter. A corral for the herd of sheep was close by the hogan. Homes were far apart from each other. The Navajo blessed their homes in a special ceremony to bring it good luck and happiness
The Indians of the Southwest Culture lived in apartment-style buildings. These buildings were made of adobe, clay and vegetables dried in the sun. This type of home was especially good for areas that had very little rainfall and a hot desert climate. Many families lived in each apartment. As families grew, rooms were added on top of the rooms that were already there.
<> <> Built of masonry -- squared rocks on rocky mesas and mountains -- or of adobe, a clay mixture, on desert flats where there is little rock, these flat-topped buildings of many rooms, often stacked, are an ancient form of Native housing, in the southwest. Mesa Verde, built by the ancient Anasazi, was abandoned during a long drought in the 13th century, stands in ruins in a mesa cliff cave. It inspired Hopi potter-engineer Al Qoyawaymato make this wonderful pot depicting it. The Anasazi from here (and the large settlements in Chaco Canyon) resettled among the many pueblos along the Rio Grande river. Ancient Anasazi probably are among Qoyawayma's ancestors, some who ultimately settled on the 3 Hopi mesas in Arizona.
The Zuni were Pueblo people who traded with the Diné (Navajo) and learned from them the art of making silver jewelry. The Zuni and the Diné (Navajo) developed their skills in very different ways. Both peoples use turquoise, but the Zuni use it in repetitive patterns that may cover the entire piece of jewelry. In this bracelet, silver serves only as the setting for the stones. Because the Acoma Pueblo is located on an isolated mesa, the Acoma tradition of pottery-making has changed very little from ancient times. The dark gray clay common to the region is very dense, permitting the potters to make strong, lightweight pottery with very thin walls. The Diné (Navajo) are relative newcomers to the Southwest. They are believed to have migrated from Northwestern Canada to the Southwest around 1400. In their own language, they call themselves Diné (DEE-nay), which means "the people."
Chief Pattern Blanket, Third Phase 1880-1885, Berlant Collectionderive from the Pueblo “cloud and rain design that is very similar. Even diamonds may owe something to Pueblo diamond designs such as stylized bird motifs in which the feathers are triangles and the overall shape diamond or diamond twill, which is the dominant Pueblo weave. Diamonds had also been used on Navajo blankets.
Plain Stripe Blanket Worn by Ash-tish-kel, Southwest Museum, L.A. Classic Child's Blanket, c. 1870-5, Berlant Collection, L.A.
Eye-Dazzlers not only used brilliant colors, primarily from the warm range, but more dramatic patterns (fig. 15 & 16). Serrated or sawtooth diamonds and zigzag lines heighten optical effects. There are afterimage or reversal effects through color and pattern. More significantly the direction
Wedge Weave c. 1885, Berlant Collection, Los Angeles Two Grey Hills Rug, Museum of Northern Arizona
Yei Rug, Read Mullen Collection Sand Painting of Father Sky & Mother Earth
Koshare clowns try to climb a pole at one of Taos pueblo's sacred dances, painted by famed Santa Clara painter Pablita Velarde in 1947.
KACHINAS Kachina dolls were carved out wood by the Zuni and Hopi tribes. They clothed them in masks and costumes to look like the men who dressed up as Kachina spirits. They were given to children to teach them to identify the different parts of Kachina dolls, and the parts they play in tribal ceremonies. The Kachinas, or Gods, were beings of a great might and a great power to the Native Americans. They were known to come down to earth and actually help the native Americans tend their fields and give them wisdom about agriculture, and law and government. They physically interacted with the people themselves. There have been drawings of these Kachinas on cave walls. In many ways they correspond to the kinds of drawings we see in the Nasdak Plains but in much larger form.
FOOD The very first Southwest Native Americans hunted mammoths until they became extinct. Then people began to hunt buffalo, also known as bison, as well as collect wild plants for food. They also learned to grow maize, or corn, that was their most common grain, which became domesticated in Mexico. Corn is the central food of daily life, and piki - paper thin bread made from corn and ash--is the dominant food at ceremonies. Corn relies on the farmer to survive, and the Hopi relies on the corn - all life is designed to be interrelated. The Hopi Indians grew food similar to the Navajo Indians. They raised corn or maize as the basic food. The Hopi Indians based religious ceremonies on the corn they grew.They grew 24 different kinds of corn, but the blue and white was the most common.They also grew beans, squash, melons, pumpkins, and fruit.
References Page 1 – People of the Southwest Desert” -Video – www. Unitedstreaming.com Page 3, 4 – Hogans//adobe – http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/reports2/navajo.htmH Page 4 - Pueblo picture – http://www.nativeamericans.com/Wigwams.htm Page 5 - Mesa Verde picture and information, Koshare clowns – http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/houses/pueblo.html Pages 6 - Basket, jeewelry, and pottery – http://www.artsconnected.org/about/restrictions.html Pages 7 – 10 - Blankets -http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~rwj1/navb/nov15.html Page 12, 13 - Kachinas - http://www.crystalinks.com/hopi1.html