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5.3 Classification of biodiversity

5.3 Classification of biodiversity

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5.3 Classification of biodiversity

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  1. 5.3 Classification of biodiversity Understanding: • The binomial system of names for species is universal among biologists and has been agreed and developed at a series of congresses • When species are discovered they are given scientific names • Taxonomists classify using taxa • All organisms classified into 3 domains • Principal taxa for classifying eukaryotes are: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species • In a natural classification the genus and higher taxa have all evolved from one common ancestor • Taxonomists sometimes reclassify groups of species when new evidence shows a previous taxon contains species evolved from a different ancestor • Natural classifications help in identification of species and allow the prediction of characteristics shared by species within a group Applications • Classification of one plant and one animal species from domain to species level • External recognition features of bryophytes, filicinophytes, coniferophytes and angiospermophytes • Recognition features of porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelide, mollusca and arthropoda, chordata • Recognition of features of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles and fish Skills • Construction of dichotomous keys for use in identifying specimens Nature of science: • Cooperation and collaboration between groups of scientists: scientists use the binomial system to identify a species rather than the many different local names

  2. 5.3 Classification of biodiversity Understanding: • The binomial system of names for species is universal among biologists and has been agreed and developed at a series of congresses • When species are discovered they are given scientific names • Taxonomists classify using taxa • All organisms classified into 3 domains • Principal taxa for classifying eukaryotes are: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species • In a natural classification the genus and higher taxa have all evolved from one common ancestor • Taxonomists sometimes reclassify groups of species when new evidence shows a previous taxon contains species evolved from a different ancestor • Natural classifications help in identification of species and allow the prediction of characteristics shared by species within a group Applications • Classification of one plant and one animal species from domain to species level • External recognition features of bryophytes, filicinophytes, coniferophytes and angiospermophytes • Recognition features of porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelide, mollusca and arthropoda, chordata • Recognition of features of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles and fish Skills • Construction of dichotomous keys for use in identifying specimens Nature of science: • Cooperation and collaboration between groups of scientists: scientists use the binomial system to identify a species rather than the many different local names

  3. Recognition of features: Plants External recognition of features of bryophytes, filicinophytes, coniferophytes, and angiospermophytes 2. Animal phyla Recognise features of porifera, cnidaria, plathelminthes, annelida, mollusca, and arthropoda, chordata 3. Vertebrates Recognise features of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles and fish

  4. Plants Plants classified together in one kingdom Every plant is made by male and female gametes fusing together. Embryos develop in different ways for different types of plants Therefore put into different phyla Four main phyla Bryophyta (mosses/liverworts/hornworts) Filicinophyta (ferns) Coniferophyta (conifers) Angiospermophyta (flowering plants)

  5. Animals Animals divided into over 30 phyla based on characteristics You need to know 6 phyla Porifera(sponges) Cnidaria(corals/jellyfish) Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Mollusca (snails) Annelida (leeches) Arthropoda (insects)

  6. Vertebrates Most species of chordate belong to one of 5 major classes. Birds Mammals Amphibians Reptiles Fish

  7. Vertebrates (p268) Plants (p266) Animals (p267) For each phyla identify the following features: Vegetative organs (growth rather than reproduction) Vascular tissue (transport – xylem and phloem) Cambium (cells to reproduce xylem and phloem) Pollen (male gametes) Ovules (contains female gametes) Seeds Fruits For each of the phyla you must know about the following: Mouth/anus Symmetry Skeleton Other external recognition features For each vertebrate – find out about the following: Skin How they breathe Limbs How they move How they reproduce and where Where they live (marine or terrestrial) Teeth? Body temperature Porifera(sponges) Cnidaria(corals/jellyfish) Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Mollusca (snails) Annelida (leeches) Arthropoda (insects) Bryophyta(mosses/liverworts/hornworts) Filicinophyta (ferns) Coniferophyta (conifers) Angiospermophyta (flowering plants) Birds Mammals Amphibians Reptiles Fish Presentations: Wednesday 22nd March Give examples!

  8. Why are supermarkets organised like this?

  9. Classification… All living things arranged into groups according to their similarities

  10. HOW DO WE IDENTIFY LIVING THINGS?

  11. Living things… N M G R E H R

  12. Living things… Nutrition Metabolism Growth Response Excretion Homeostasis Reproduction

  13. The 3 domains • Eukaryotes • Eubacteria (prokaryote) • Archaea (prokaryote) Understanding: • All organisms classified into 3 domains

  14. What is the difference? Understanding: • All organisms classified into 3 domains

  15. What is the difference? Understanding: • All organisms classified into 3 domains

  16. Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species K P Crisps Only For Good Students Eukaryotes are classified using principal taxa Understanding: • Principal taxa for classifying eukaryotes are: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species • Taxonomists classify using taxa

  17. Who am I? Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Canis lupus Applications • Classification of one plant and one animal species from domain to species level

  18. Who am I? Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Find one for a plant you like You need to remember them (If you don’t like the one for wolf you can find a different animal one too!) Applications • Classification of one plant and one animal species from domain to species level

  19. Classification becomes more specific Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Canis lupus Applications • Classification of one plant and one animal species from domain to species level

  20. Naming Species Lords and ladies Cuckoo pint Devils and angels Cows and bulls Willy Lily Snakes meat Arum maculatum The same species can have many different local names. Understanding: • When species are discovered they are given scientific names • Taxonomists classify using taxa

  21. Naming Species Ensures all scientists use same names Decided by different animal and plant congresses Cooperation and collaboration between scientists Nature of science: • Cooperation and collaboration between groups of scientists: scientists use the binomial system to identify a species rather than the many different local names

  22. Binomial Names Rules: • Genus name begins with upper case letter and species name with lower case • Italics • Can be abbreviated once if used already: A.maculatum Genus and species Understanding: • The binomial system of names for species is universal among biologists and has been agreed and developed at a series of congresses • When species are discovered they are given scientific names

  23. Natural Classification Classify organisms in a way that closely follows evolution Members of a genus should have a common ancestor Members of the group share many characteristics Unnatural classification – grouping birds, bats and insects because they fly Flight evolved separately in these groups and they have very big differences otherwise Understanding: • In a natural classification the genus and higher taxa have all evolved from one common ancestor

  24. Why do classification? • Identification of species is easier Go through each taxa step by step – assign a kingdom, then a phylum Dichotomous keys can be used to help with the process Not easy with unnatural classification 2. Prediction of characteristics Inherited similar characteristics from common ancestor Could not do this if we used unnatural classification E.G find a new species of bat – we know it has mammalian features (could not do if grouped with birds) Understanding: • In a natural classification the genus and higher taxa have all evolved from one common ancestor • Natural classifications help in identification of species and allow the prediction of characteristics shared by species within a group

  25. Reclassification New evidence may show that members do not share a common ancestor Split group up into more taxa (or two groups are found to be more similar – merge the groups) Understanding: • Taxonomists sometimes reclassify groups of species when new evidence shows a previous taxon contains species evolved from a different ancestor

  26. Dichotomous Key Living things grouped together due to similarities Skills • Construction of dichotomous keys for use in identifying specimens

  27. What are these? BIRDS

  28. What are these? MAMMALS

  29. What are these? FISH

  30. We can create a dichotomous key to split these animals up. To do this we need to ask questions about them to find their differences. How are fish, mammals and birds different? Skills • Construction of dichotomous keys for use in identifying specimens

  31. BIRDS Feathers MAMMALS Fur FISH Scales

  32. This is how we construct a dichotomous key… Does it have scales? yes Does it have feathers? no yes no

  33. Dichotomous Keys You need to be able to read two different types of dichotomous key and be able to create your own. • Complete the classification worksheet • Create your own classification key using 5 animals of your choice • Look at page 265 in your book turn your key from part 2 into the second type of key. Skills • Construction of dichotomous keys for use in identifying specimens