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AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE PowerPoint Presentation
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AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

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AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

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  1. DAY 3 Notes • 1560Charles IX becomes King of France • 10 years old • Catherine de Medici – Regent • 2 powerful families competing against monarchs and each other for more political power: • 1)Guise • Catholic • 90% of France = Catholic • 2)Bourbon • Mostly Catholic, but supported Huguenots to gain political support • Catherine tried to control government to keep both families from getting too powerful AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  2. DAY 3 Notes • 1562 France’s religious wars begin • 1572 Charles IX increasingly influenced by Admiral de Coligny (Protestant) • Catherine feared France would go to war with Spain and she would lose control over Charles • Catherine planned to assassinate Coligny, but it failed • an Investigation would prove her involvement • she convinced Charles that the Protestants were planning to overthrow him • Charles IX – “I consent, but then you must kill all the Huguenots so there are none left to blame me.” • August 1572 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre • 6000 Protestants were killed • Protestants became militant / wars intensified AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  3. DAY 3 Notes • RELIGIOUS WARS WERE DESTROYING FRANCE • 1574 Henry III became king of France • he was Catholic, but gave increased freedoms to Huguenots • this angered Catholics, they formed “Catholic League” • goal was to reduce Protestant influence in France • 1585 Catholics (led by the Guise) revolted against Henry III • Henry III joined with Henry of Navarre (Protestant) • 1589 Henry III assassinated and Henry of Navarre becomes king of France • becomes Henry IV • finds it hard to rule in a Catholic majority • Politiques began to develop • set aside differences to save France • France 1st AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  4. DAY 3 Notes • 1593 Henry IV converts to CATHOLICISM • establishing royal authority in France required internal peace • “Paris is well worth the mass” • 1598 Henry IV issues EDICT OF NANTES • allowed Civil and Religious Freedom • allowed to trade, go to school, treated in same hospitals • given Amnesty for crimes during religious wars • ended religious wars • 1610 Henry IV assassinated by François Ravaillac(Catholic) • Louis XIII (9 year old son) becomes king • Marie de Medici – Regent • Cardinal Richelieu advisor (Politique) AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  5. DAY 3 Notes • GOALS OF CARDINAL RICHELIEU • create an Absolute Monarchy • weaken power of Huguenots • Opposed to “State within a State” • 3. weaken power of Nobles • used Intendants • middle class • “civil servants” appointed by the king to make sure his rule was being followed all over France • loyal – owed position to king AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  6. DAY 3 Notes • GOALS OF CARDINAL RICHELIEU • 4. expand trade, agriculture, industry • 5. weaken Catholic Hapsburgs by siding with Protestants • 30 Years War • 1648 – Treaty of Westphalia • 1643 Louis XIII died replaced by his son - Louis XIV • Age 5 (mother Anne acted as regent) AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  7. DAY 4 Notes • Increasing tension over growing power of French monarchy • 1648 Fronde = riots against government • Parlement of Paris (Supreme Court) trying to limit the growing authority of the crown • rejected new tax plan proposed by government • government responded by arresting several judges • “Frenchies” rose in revolt • growing discontent of nobles wanting more power • Increasing frustration of commoners with unfair taxes • Fronde scared Louis • lost faith in people and vowed never to trust them • vowed to never let it happen again AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  8. DAY 4 Notes • 1661 Louis XIV takes control of France = ABSOLUTE MONARCH • believer in Divine Right of Kings • “Sun King” (used Sun as his symbol) • provider of life • “I am the State” • used Intendants • did not call “Estates General” • did not want to empower others to solve problems • Versailles • leading nobles lived there so he could keep watch on them so they would not develop independent power in their provinces • Louis gave them offices / titles, but with no real power • Nobles paid NO taxes in exchange for supporting Louis AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  9. DAY 4 Notes • ECONOMICS • Jean Baptiste Colbert - Finance Minister • Mercantilism • Gold/silver • Industry (subsidies, tax benefits, tariffs) • Favorable balance of trade • Colonies • RELIGION • Huguenots threat to political and religious unity • 1685 – revoked Edict of Nantes • Many fled – hurt France’s economy AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

  10. AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE DAY 4 Notes • WARS • expand and protect French borders • Other countries joined against France to keep a “Balance of Power” • Hurt French economy • 1702 War of the Spanish Succession • King Charles II died without a direct heir • Louis XIV’s grandson (Philip V) next in line • Fear that Spain and France would become allies • Balance of Power would be offset • Grand Alliance (England, Netherlands, Austria) • 1713 – Treat of Utrecht • Philip V remain Spanish king, but could not join France

  11. AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE DAY 4 Notes Legacy of Louis XIV Positive • strongest country in Europe • Leader in the arts • Military was strongest in Europe • Development of strong colonial system for trade Negative • Debt • Unfair Tax structure – 1st/2nd Estates paid no taxes, ONLY 3rd Estate paid taxes reason for the French Revolution • Wars