Student needs are the #1 priority. Instructional Leaders Teachers Support Staff Parents The RtI Journey in the Secondary English Classroom By: Christy Cheek and Amy Limerick
Objectives: what, how, why • What are you learning? • The framework and implementation of RtI and DI • How are you learning? • Through the use of cloze notes, reflection and discussion, cooperative learning techniques, video segments, and graphic organizers • Why are you learning? • To meet the reading and writing needs of all students
Needs Assessment: Survey • 1. What is RtI? • 2. What should RtI look like? • 3. What are your strengths regarding RtI? • 4. What are your weaknesses regarding RtI? • 5. What tools are you utilizing for progress monitoring? • 6. Have you ever been trained or received any professional development on RtI? • 7. If there was a PDS on RtI, what would you like to have included? • 8. Do you feel like RtI is working? Why or why not? • 9. What can be done to improve RtI at DSMS?
Where do we go from here? Based on the survey results, the DSMS English department will start at Ground Zero of RtI implementation and begin with establishing a common vocabulary.
1. What is RtI? • Response to Intervention (RtI) is defined as “the practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventionsmatched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changesin instruction or goals, and applying child response datato important educational decisions” (Batsche et al., 2006).
1a. Tier 1 of RtI: Tier 1 • Tier 1 (also referred to as universal or primary)— This is the coreacademic and social and behavioral instruction that everylearner in a school building is taught. The goal is that at least 80 percent of learners will make a year’s growth in a year’s time through core instruction alone. In addition, at least 95 percent of learners achieving at grade level will maintain progress from year to year through core instruction.
1b. Tier 2 of RtI: Tier 2 • Tier 2 (also referred to as secondary or strategic)— Tier 2 refers to the instruction that is delivered in addition to (supplemental to) the core instruction for some learners. 10to 15 percent of learners will need this additional instruction (short or long term) in an area of relative weakness to close the achievement gap between them and their peers.
Tier 3 1c. Tier 3 of RtI: • Tier 3 of RtI (also referred to as tertiary or intensive)— Tier 3 is the instruction that is delivered to a few students (about 5 percent) for a short or long term in addition to the core. Such instruction is of greater intensity and more individualized in order to address a unique area of relative weakness. Tier 3 may include special education services, but it is not necessarily or commonly synonymous of special education.
2. What is PBS? • Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is based on a problem-solvingmodel and aims to preventinappropriate behavior through teachingand reinforcingappropriate behaviors (OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports, 2007). http://www.rti4success.org/pdf/rti_and_positive_behavior_support.pdf
Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is a process that is consistent with the core principles of RtI. • Similar to RtI, PBS offers a range of interventions that are systematically applied to students based on their demonstrated level of need, and addresses the role of the environment as it applies to development and improvement of behavior problems. Both RtI and PBS are grounded in differentiated instruction. http://www.rti4success.org/pdf/rti_and_positive_behavior_support.pdf
3. What is DI? • Carol Ann Tomlinson defines differentiation as “tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction.” http://www.readingrockets.org/article/263/
What is assessment? • Assessment is the practice of evaluatingeducational outcomes. Within the RtI framework there are four terms to designate types of assessment: universal screening, progress monitoring, diagnostic assessment, and summative assessment. • Universal screening = Typically conducted 3 times per school year, universal screening measures consist of brief, practical assessments focused on target skills that are highly predictive of future outcomes. Universal screening is for the purpose of indentifying students who may be at risk for not meeting these outcomes (Johnson et al., 2006). • Progress monitoring = This is the practice of collecting student performance data frequently (for example, one per week) using brief, sensitive measures to see if classroom instruction is working, as referenced in the work of Stan Deno (n.d.) and Lynn S. Fuchs (n.d.). Progress monitoring may consists of formative assessment, common assessments, or curriculum based measures.
Assessments continued: • Diagnostic test = Diagnostic assessment practices serve to identify particular characteristics or features of an identified program. Diagnostic testing can help us answer questions about why a particular problem might be occurring or what specific aspects of a particular topic may be problematic for students • Summative assessments = These are the assessments that occur infrequently to evaluate the cumulative progress of students toward learning outcome. Examples of summative assessments include grades, state tests, or intelligence tests.
Data based decision making • Use data effectively to develop an action plan and determine measurable benchmark of progress www.rti4success.org
RtI in Action: Russell Middle SchoolColorado Springs, Colorado • Russell Middle School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, has been successfully implementing RTI for academics and behavior for several years. Listen to Principal Jeanice Swift and her staff as they discuss their success and their challenges as well as critical RTI issues like scheduling, problem solving, and student involvement. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VlRM6kf7EZ0 www.rtinetwork.org
References Batsche, G., Elliott, J., Graden, J.L., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J.F., Prasse, D., et al. (2006). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education. Bender, William. (2009). Beyond the rti pyramid: solutions for the first years of implementation. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Bollman, H., Johnson, S., Windram, H. (2012). How rti works in secondary schools: Building a framework for success. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Brozo, W. (2011). Rti and the adolescent reader: Responsive literacy instruction in secondary schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Metcalf, L. (2010). Solution-focused rti: A positive and personalized approach to response to intervention. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Buffum, A., Mattos, M. & Weber, C. (2009). Pyramid response to intervention: Rti, professional learning communities, and how to respond when kids don’t learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree
References National Professional Resources, Inc. (Producer). (2009). Rti & di: The dynamic duo [DVD]. Available from http://www.nprinc.com/rti-di-the-dynamic-duo/ Reed, D.K., Wexler, J. & Vaughn, S. (2012). Rti for reading at the secondary level: Recommended literacy practices and remaining questions. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Response to intervention (rti) & pbis. (n.d.). Retrieved December 9, 2013, from OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports website, http://www.pbis.org/school/rti.aspx RTI in secondary schools. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2013, from RTI Action Network, A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities website, http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/rti-in-secondary-schools The essential components of rti. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2013, from National Center on Response to Intervention website, http://www.rti4success.org/ Tomlinson, C. & Allan, S.D. (2000). Leadership for differentiating schools & classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
References Webinar: Connecting RTI to New Priorities: Aligning Educational Initiatives. (2011, October 20). Retrieved December 7, 2013, from Center on Instruction website, http://www.centeroninstruction.org/webinar-connecting-rti-to-new-priorities-aligning-educational-initiatives What is differentiated instruction? (n.d.). Retrieved December 9, 2013, from Reading Rockets website, http://www.readingrockets.org/article/263/