Motivation Is a Dynamic Process • The study of motivation is essentially the study of what moves a person or animal to act in a particular way. • Motivation: an inner state that energizes behavior toward the fulfillment of a goal
Theories of Motivation Internal: something about the organism pushes it toward (or away from) some object External: attributes of the goal or the environment pull the organism in a certain direction
Biological Motivation: Drive Reduction Theories: • Homeostasis: tendency to keep physiological systems internally balanced and adjusting in response to change • an imbalance in homeostasis creates a physiological need, which produces a drive that motivates the organism to satisfy the need
Arousal Motivation Maintaining an Optimal Level • Research indicates too low levels of arousal are as uncomfortable as those that are too high. • Yerkes-Dodson law. • Best performance occurs when we are at an intermediate level of arousal.
Incentive Motivation: External Factors Motivate Behavior • Behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli (positive incentives) & avoiding undesirable stimuli ( negative incentives). (Remember operant conditioning: an incentive is the promise of reinforcement.) • Any stimulus that we learn to associate with positive or negative outcomes can serve as an incentive for behavior.
Incentive Theory: External Factors Motivate Behavior • Researchers distinguish two types of motivation: • Intrinsic motivation: a behavior or an activity that a person perceives as a valued goal in its own right • Extrinsic motivation: type of motivation that leads a person to engage in a behavior or an activity for external reasons
Maslow Proposed Some Needs Must Be Met before Others • We are born with a hierarchy of needs. • First, basic safety and survival needs needs must be sufficiently satisfied. • Next, the person is motivated by more social needs such as the desire for intimacy, love, and acceptance from others. • These are followed by esteem needs such as the desire for achievement, power, recognition, and respect from others. • All the needs in the four levels of the hierarchy are deficiency needs.
Do We Prioritize our Needs? Maslow Proposed Some Needs Must Be Met before Others He also said that self-actualization, the need to fulfill one’s potential, is the ultimate goal of human growth. This is an appealing theory of motivation in business, education, etc., and it provides an organized framework for discussing human motives. However, the simplicity of the theory proved to be its primary problem. (It tells us little that we did not already know and explains nothing.
Obesity & Eating Disorders: Internal & External Forces • Definition of obesity: the excessive accumulation of body fat • Diagnosis: calculate body mass index (BMI), which is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (30 kg/m2) • Person with body mass index over 30 is considered obese.
Do Genes Shape Our Motivation?Are eating patterns hereditary? • Instinct: an unlearned, relatively fixed pattern of behavior that is essential to a species’ survival • In the early 1900s William McDougall and other instinct theorists contended that much of human behavior is controlled by instincts. • The problem with these instinct theories is that many so-called instinctual behaviors are learned and shaped by experience.
Then what determines eating patterns? • Internals – listen to hunger cues from the body • Externals – are pulled by the incentives of tasty food and social cues • People differ individually, so there may be genetic influence.
Biological influences on Eating Patterns • Hormones such as gastrin, leptin, and cholecystokinin (CCK) produced by a full stomach/digestive track • Blood glucose and insulin levels • Monitoring by the hypothalamus
The Psychology of EatingLearned Eating Patterns • Classical conditioning • Comfort food • Social events • Social acceptability • Acquired tastes
Obesity & Eating Disorders: Social/Cultural Forces From 1991 to 1998, 50% increase in number of obese American adults (12% to 18%) • Number of overweight children has doubled in past 20 years. • Obesity closely related to chronic health conditions: high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, & sleep disorders
Obesity & Eating Disorders: Social Forces • Weight discrimination more pervasive and widely condoned than race and gender discrimination • Results in social climate that pressures people to reach certain body ideals • Female ideal stresses difficult-to-attain thinness standards that endanger women’s health • Women of all ages more likely to view their bodies as objects of others’ attention and evaluate their bodies more negatively than men • Women more likely to habitually experience social physique anxiety, which is anxiety about others observing or evaluating their bodies
Obesity & Eating Disorders • Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder in which person weighs less than 85% of normal weight & expresses an intense fear of gaining weight. • Bulimia: eating disorder in which person engages in recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by drastic measures to purge body of consumed calories • In addition to sociocultural factors, a growing body of evidence suggests possible genetic and motivational influences on these eating disorders.
Sexual Motivation • Sex is not a survival drive. • However, sexual behavior is essential for the continuation of a species. • The reinforcing properties of sex may involve the same brain structures and neurotransmitter systems that are stimulated by cocaine and other addictive drugs.
Sexual Motivations • Sexual behaviors may be influenced by: • Biological drive states • Psychological Needs: affiliation, acceptance, affection, achievement • Cultural customs and morals: relationship factors, religious Beliefs
Decisions about Engaging in Sex: More Cultural than Biological • Percent of teenagers experiencing sex: • Varies across cultures • 50-80% of American teenagers • 2.5% China • Varies across history • 3% of American women age 18 in 1900 • 50% of American women age 18 in 1998
Psychological Motives for Sexual Behavior • peer approval • need to feel valued • need for intimacy • stress reduction • need for power • desire to have children • belief that you are supposed to have an active sex life to be healthy
Sex and Relationships • Sex is most satisfying and has the least capacity for harm in intimate, committed relationships. • 80% of adults in committed relationships , and 88% in “extremely physically and emotionally satisfied.” • However, sex is frequently engaged in for a variety of other motives.
Sex and Relationships • “Sex is a socially significant act.” • It will affect your self-concept. • It will affect your current relationship. • It will influence relationships with future partners. • It will affect your relationship with parents and family. • It will affect your peer and friendship relationships. • It may cause you to become a parent under unintended circumstances.
Are we using each other? People also have sexual relationships for selfish motives. Use others to satisfy own desires Feeling of power & control Frighten, dominate, or humiliate another Demonstrate own attractiveness
Lack of Clear Cultural Standards Cultural standards provide a reason not to do something. They provide a balance to other social pressures to engage in an activity. America is currently in a period of cultural confusion with weak or non-existent standards.
What are the social/cultural pressures to have irresponsible sex? • Idealized concepts of romance and sexuality • Sex will make you fall in love • Love will make sex OK. • Everybody is doing it. You are somehow unacceptable if you don’t. • Most HS seniors no longer virgins. • Media (TV, movies) created myths & ideals • Sex proves maturity, masculinity, &/or desirability • Sex is a necessary & desirable part of any romantic relationship (extended adolescence). • Spontaneous passion should be acted upon.
Sex Education? • Effective prevention programs must focus on multiple areas of a person’s life in order to increase safer sexual behaviors. • Discussions of nonsexual motivations for seeking intimacy • Assertiveness training for people to feel comfortable saying no to a potential sex partner • Providing models and examples of situations where safer sex is still exciting sex (de-glamorizing sex).
Are we becoming a sexually coercive society? • 12% of American girls and 5% of boys say they were forced to have intercourse. • Among those who had sex voluntarily, 25% said they really did not want to do so.
Is there too much cultural encouragement to sexual activity? • United States • According to one survey, 72% of 12-17 year old girls who had sex said that they regretted it.
Do we take sexual coercion lightly? • Estimated 13% of women have endured rape, legally defined as intercourse by force, by threat of harm, or when the victim is incapable of consent by reason of mental retardation, mental illness, or intoxication. • 1998 college survey, 44% of women had experienced sexual coercion; 19% of men had obtained sex through force
Decisions about responsible sexual behavior • What is an appropriate relationship? • What is an “appropriate” motive? Does your partner agree? • Why is it OK to refuse sex? What reason would you give for saying “no” to an attractive partner?
Responsible Sexual Behavior • People who are uneasy thinking about sex plan less for sexual interactions. • This leads to more unprotected sex & greater likelihood of unwanted pregnancies & STD infection.