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  1. Buy the TV program at the news kiosk Assessing prospective memory in young healthy adults using virtual reality Julie Gonneaud, Pascale Piolino, Grégory Lecouvey, Sophie Madeleine, Eric Orriols, Philippe Fleury, Francis Eustache, and Béatrice Desgranges gonneaud@cyceron.fr http://www.u1077.caen.inserm.fr/ 9th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies September 10–12, 2012 - Laval, France

  2. What is prospective memory (PM)? • Memory for actions to be performed in the future(Einstein & McDaniel, 1990) • 2 components • Prospective (ProCom) ○ Retrospective (RetCom) • 2 kinds • Event-based (EBPM) ○ Time-based (TBPM) ? ICDVRAT Podiumpresentation September 11th 12:00 Podium presentationfor the ICDVRAT

  3. Multiple stages in PM Prospective component Retrospective component + Time-based (self-initiated) Event-based (external cue) Intention Formation Intention Retention Take cookies out of the oven Intention Initiation Intention Execution (Gonneaud, Eustache & Desgranges, 2009) Output monitoring

  4. Why evaluate PM? Long neglected… growing number of studies since 2000 Special Issues Applied Cognitive Psychology - 2000 International Journal of Psychology - 2003 Brain Impraiment – 2009 Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology – 2011 Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Journal of Psychology – 2011 Neuropsychologia – 2011 … but still many unresolved questions Altered in many population Healthy aging … under specific conditions( McDaniel & Einstein ,2011) Transient Global Amnesia(Hainselin et al, 2011) Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease (Costa et al. 2010; 2011; 2012; Huppert & Bearsdall 1993) Dementia(Livner et al., 2009 ; Will et al., 2009) Traumatic Brain Injury(Cheng et al., 2008 ; Flemming et al., 2008 ) Parkinson Disease(Costa et al., 2008 ; Kliegel et al., 2011) Multiple Sclerosis(Rendell et al. 2007; 2012) HIV (Carey et al., 2006) Alcohol (Heffernan, 2008 ; Leitz et al., 2009) Schizophrenia(Altgassen et al., 2008 ; Wang et al., 2008) Autism(Altgassen et al., 2009 ; Brandimonte et al., 2011) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(Cuttler & Graf, 2007) Subject of complaints in those populations

  5. Classical techniques to assess PM Questionnaires Subjective complaints Naturalistic settings Call the experimenter everyday during 7 days, send a postcard,… Laboratory evaluation(Einstein et McDaniel, 1990) Kvavilashvili et al., 2008; from Einstein & McDaniel, 1990

  6. Methodological issue Is PM similar in naturalistic and laboratory settings ? Naturalistic-settings lack of experimental control use of external aids, differences in ongoing activities between subjects… Laboratory paradigms lack of ecological validity “press y-key when you will see the word president” is far from plan and remember going to an appointment or taking medication The Age Prospective Memory Paradox Young < Older Young > Older Virtual Reality (VR) would be particularly relevantto assess such kind of complex function

  7. Theoretical issueThe time-based/event-based distinction > • Dissociation EBPM – TBPM • TBPM harder than EBPM • TBPM requires more self-initiated processes (Craik 1986) • EBPM -> performance facilitated by strong Cue-Action association • Role of binding abilities(Gonneaud, Kalpouzos et al. 2011) • Benefice of implementing intention (higher level of planning;Gollwitzer; 1999) • Better performance when cue and action are semantically related(McDaniel et al. 2004) • TBPM -> no such link

  8. Objective of this study / > > • Methodological purpose: • Use a methodology that meets the criteria of ecological validityand allows experimental control • Assess the validity of our material for future use • Theoretical purpose: • 3 experimental conditions • Link-EBPM - EBPM intention with a strong link between ProCom&RetCom • noLink-EBPM - EBPM intention with a weak link between ProCom&RetCom • TBPM - TBPM intention (a weak link between ProCom&RetCom) • Complementary neuropsychological assessment

  9. METHOD - Virtual environment • Paris Descartes Memory and Cognition Lab software • Built with Virtools Dev 3.0 software • Urban environment

  10. METHOD - Device • Virtual town • Projected on a 180x240 cm widescreen • Driving conditions • a real steering wheel • two pedals • Auditory immersion • city noise (car, people…) • Clock for TBPM condition

  11. METHOD – PM assessment Was this element in the city? ? ? ? Buy the TV program at the news kiosk • Familiarisation with the device • Simple city (ordinary buildings, trees, interactive traffic lights) • Learning stage of the city • Immersion • Recognition task • Encoding of9 intentions • 3 Link-EBPM - buy stamp booklet at the post office • 3 noLink-EBPM - buy eyeglasses at the fountain • 3 TBPM - take medication after 4 minutes • Storage of intentions10 minutes filled questionnaires • Retrieval of intentions in the city – PM taskScored ProCom and RetCom in each condition

  12. METHOD – Complementary evaluation & Population • Complementary evaluation • Retrospective memory – Recall of a 16-word list (accuracy /16) • Executive function • Shifting – TMTB (time in ms) • Inhibition – Stroop (time in ms) • Updating – Running span (accuracy /16) • Working memory • Dual task – Baddeley (% of cost in dual condition) • Binding – multimodal integration task (accuracy /20) • Planning – Zoo map Test (sequencing score) • Time Estimation (% of deviation relative to real duration) • Metamemory • Memory complaints -PRMQ (score /40) • Population • 35 healthy young adults (18 to 40 ; 12 women / 23 men) • French native speakers / no neurological or psychiatric antecedent / >7 years of schooling

  13. Results Correlations between PM scores and the other cognitive functions. Condition effect * * Correct recall (%) Condition Significant effect of condition → Link-EBPM > NoLink-EBPM = TBPM → Difference in RetCom recall only Different processes underlie EBPM and TBPM, even controlling the strength of the ProCom-RetCom link Difficulties in TBPM could be due to a lack of link between ProCom and RetCom

  14. First results on healthy agingGet around the age-prospective memory paradox? Condition effect in young adults Condition effect in older adults * * * * Correct recall (%) Correct recall (%) Condition Condition → PM deficit in aging for each PM score → no-Link-EBPM : correct detection of ProCom do not elicit reflexive retrieval of RetCom → Further analyses ongoing

  15. Conclusions • Validity of virtual reality to assess PM • Even in young healthy population • Effect of the strength of the relationship Cue-Action → Strong association facilitates the retrieval of the action (RetCom) → … but can’t fully account for the EBPM/TBPM dissociation • Perspective for future work • Assessment and rehabilitation of patients • Do patients demonstrate such effect ? • Training in implementation intention / planning using VR /

  16. Acknowledgements Inserm U1077 Memory and Cognition Lab (Paris 5) CIREVE All the participants Funding Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Association France-Alzheimer and thank you foryour attention !!! September 11th 12:00 Podium presentationfor the ICDVRAT gonneaud@cyceron.fr