Chapter 1 The Learning Process
Learning • A change in behavior as a result of experience.
Learning Theory • Learning Theory • Body of principles that explain how people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes. • Two Basic Approaches • Behaviorism • Cognitive Theories
Behaviorism • B.F. Skinner - Pigeons • Animals learn in the same way • Importance of reinforcing desired behavior to shape and control what is learned • Instructor provides reinforcement • Frequent positive reinforcement and rewards accelerate learning.
Cognitive Theories • Group of Theories • What is inside the student’s mind? • Learning is a change in behavior • Learning is a change in thinking • Learning is a change in understanding • Learning is a change in feeling
Two Major Cognitive Theories • Information Processing Model • The student’s brain has internal structures • Select and process incoming material • Store and retrieve material • Use material to produce behavior • Receive and process feedback
Two Major Cognitive Theories • Social interaction • Learning is a result of interaction between student and environment • Cultural influences, peer pressure, group dynamics, film and television • Reinforcing behavior • Measuring changes
Characteristics of Learning • P urposeful • E xperience • M ulifaceted • A ctive
Learning Styles • Right Brain / Left Brain • Right Brain • Spatially oriented • Creative • Intuitive • Emotional
Learning Styles • Left Brain • Verbal • Analytical • Objective
Learning Styles • Holistic / Serialist • Holistic - sum is greater than the parts • Top Down • Big Picture • Serialist • Narrow view • Well defined steps • Bottom up
Learning Styles • Dependent / Independent • Dependent students need a lot of direction • Focus on instructor • Independent students require little direction • Instructors goal is not to screw them up.
Learning Styles • Reflective / Impulsive • Reflective -Tentative • Impulsive - Dive right in.
Six Principles of Learning • R eadiness • E xercise • E ffect • P rimacy • I ntensity • R ecency
How People Learn • 5 Senses • Sight - 75% • Hearing - 13% • Touch - 6% • Smell - 3% • Taste - 3%
Perceptions • Meaning of stimuli received from 5 senses • All learning is a result of perceptions • Factors that affect perceptions • Physical organism • Basic Need • Goals and values • Self concept • Time and opportunity • Element of threat
Physical Organism • See, Hear, Feel, Respond • Basic Need • Preserve and perpetuate one’s self • Goals and Values • Take care of things that mean much.
Self-concept • Confident or Insecure • Time and Opportunity • Time to perceive • Element of Threat • Fear adversely affects perception
Insight • Grouping perception into meaningful wholes. • Interrelationship • Insight will almost always occur • Anchor points
Instructor’s Role in Developing Insights • Organize demonstrations and explanations and direct practice to show interrelationships • Point out relationships • Provide a secure environment • Help develop student’s self concept
Motivation • Dominant force in learning • Negative • Fear, Threat • Use sparingly • Positive • Rewards
Examples of Motivation Factors • Personal comfort, security • Avoid pain • Usefulness of task • Group approval • Self Image • Instructor’s Role to help provide motivations
Levels of Learning • R ote • U nderstanding • A pplication • C orrelation
Domains of Learning • Cognitive Domain • Affective Domain • Psychomotor Domain
Cognitive domain • Knowledge - Describe, recall • Comprehension - Explain • Application - Demonstrate • Analysis - Compare • Synthesis - Formulate • Evaluation - Rate
Psychomotor Domain • Perception - awareness • Set - knows • Guided response - performs / demonstrated • Mechanism - simple acts well • Complex overt response - complex acts well • Adaptation - Special problems • Origination - New problems
Affective Domain • Receiving - Pay attention • Responding - Complies • Valuing - Acceptance • Organization - rearrangement of values • Characterization - Incorporates values
Learning Physical Skills • Desire to learn - need to know • Patterns to follow - step by step • Perform skill - practice • Knowledge of results - Awareness • Progress follows pattern - plateaus • Duration and organization of a lesson • Evaluation vs Critique • Application
Memory • 3 parts • Sensory • Hot Stove • Working Memory • Short Term • 5-10 secs to code, 7 bits of information • Long Term Memory • Riding a Bicycle
Theories of Forgetting • Disuse • Use it or Lose it • Interference • Similar material • Not learned well suffers most • Repression • Unpleasant
Retention of learning • Praise Stimulates Learning • Recall is aided by Association • Favorable Attitudes aid Retention • Learn with All Senses • Meaningful Repetition
Transfer of learning • Positive • Negative
Habit Formation • Building Block Concept
220.127.116.11.1.A.1 H201 A change in behavior as a result of experience can be defined as A. learning. B. understanding. C. knowledge.
18.104.22.168.1.A.1 H201 A change in behavior as a result of experience can be defined as A. learning.
22.214.171.124.2.B.1 H202 The learning process may include some elements such as verbal, conceptual, and A. habitual. B. problem solving. C. experiential.
126.96.36.199.2.B.1 H202 The learning process may include some elements such as verbal, conceptual, and B. problem solving.
188.8.131.52.3.A.1 H202 While learning the material being taught, students may be learning other things as well. This additional learning is called A. conceptual. B. residual. C. incidental.
184.108.40.206.3.A.1 H202 While learning the material being taught, students may be learning other things as well. This additional learning is called C. incidental.
220.127.116.11.4.B.1 H203 Individuals make more progress learning if they have a clear objective. This is one feature of the principle of A. readiness. B. primacy. C. willingness.
18.104.22.168.4.B.1 H203 Individuals make more progress learning if they have a clear objective. This is one feature of the principle of A. readiness.
22.214.171.124.5.B.1 H203 Providing opportunities for a student to practice and then directing this process towards a goal is the basis of the principle of A. learning. B. readiness. C. exercise.
126.96.36.199.5.B.1 H203 Providing opportunities for a student to practice and then directing this process towards a goal is the basis of the principle of C. exercise.
188.8.131.52.6.B.1 H203 The principle that is based on the emotional reaction of the learner is the principle of A. effect. B. intensity. C. primacy.
184.108.40.206.6.B.1 H203 The principle that is based on the emotional reaction of the learner is the principle of A. effect.
220.127.116.11.7.B.1 H203 Things most often repeated are best remembered because of which principle of learning? A. Principle of recency. B. Principle of effect. C. Principle of exercise.
18.104.22.168.7.B.1 H203 Things most often repeated are best remembered because of which principle of learning? C. Principle of exercise.
22.214.171.124.8.B.1 H203 Which principle of learning implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute? A. Principle of primacy. B. Principle of intensity. C. Principle of effect.
126.96.36.199.8.B.1 H203 Which principle of learning implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute? B. Principle of intensity.
188.8.131.52.9.B.1 H203 Which principle of learning often determines the sequence of lectures within a course of instruction? A. Principle of primacy. B. Principle of recency. C. Principle of intensity.