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Print. http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/jc50.2008/reelBadArabs/ index.html Story info sheet http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/9/24/faith-based- communityinitiativesstatedepartment.html http://www.adc.org/education/arab-stereotypes-and-american-educators /. Author Intent.
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Print • http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/jc50.2008/reelBadArabs/index.html • Story info sheet • http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/9/24/faith-based-communityinitiativesstatedepartment.html • http://www.adc.org/education/arab-stereotypes-and-american-educators/
Author Intent • Every author, translator, or writer has an agenda • Language, detail, setting, characterization, and translation is precise and purposeful • Intent is transmitted through mood and tone • Mood = the way the reader feels when reading a story • Tone = the author’s feelings about the characters/story they have created
Interpretation of Arab Culture • View clips of Aladdin and reflect on what you see and hear • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VkiITQnrAYM • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcTC7RkmHac How are the following portrayed? Women – tradition – character stereotypes – conflict • An analysis of Disney and Orientalism: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dLdzx9-H8Wg • Documentary: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdRc8c8jhU8
Wednesday: Orientalism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwCOSkXR_Cw&feature=related Watch youtube video and write down what you believe “orientalism” is.
Orientalism definition: A system (of texts, movies, images, etc) which together reinforce a way of understanding the Middle East through a very Eurocentric lens, though which the “other” is exoticized in inaccurate and ahistorical ways Why do we have a preconceived notion of these people?
Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination • Prejudice: A thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things, but the belief may or may not accurately reflect reality. • Prejudice: Making a decision before becoming aware of relevant facts; unfounded beliefs; unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence; feeling unfavorable toward a person or thing prior to actual experience • Discrimination: Distinguishing treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category; restriction and exclusion
Prejudicial Side Effects • Justification of ill-founded prejudices or ignorance • Unwillingness to rethink one’s attitudes and behavior toward stereotyped groups • Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fields
Beginnings of Orientalism • Roots in British and French colonial efforts of the 18th and 19th centuries • Influenced by art and literature • Travel writers and artists fabricated imagery that were transmitted and inherited by Westerners • After World War II: • Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: Israel support • Arab Oil Embargo: angry Americans when gas prices exploded • Iranian revolution: Increase Arab-American tensions when hostages were taken for more than a year
Features of Orientalism • People from East (Asia, Middle East, and sometimes Russia) • Weak • Feminine • Culturally backward • Shifty and untrustworthy • Exotic • Seductive • Unchanging • Biologically inferior to Westerners • Eager to be dominated • Silenced (by extremists, oppressive governments, and the veiling of women)
Group Readings • Each group will be assigned part of an article to read • Summarize your article in a paragraph and be prepared to share the summary with your classmates
Why did Edward Said find it necessary to develop the concept of Orientalism? • When you think of The Arabian Nights, what images of the Middle East come to mind? • Where do these images come from? • What are the images from the stories you have read so far that conform to the stereotypes of Orientalism? Which images contradict these stereotypes? • Is there such a thing as a “good stereotype?” • Based on the translation discussion from Unit 1, how do various translations of the Nights support or undermine stereotypes? • Consider Orientalism in reverse. If a non-Westerner came up with a perspective on the West based on fairy tales, what might it look like? • Is it possible not to be affected by stereotypes? How can we resist them?
http://www.unc.edu/depts/europe/francophone/1001_nights/1001_eng/multimedia.htmhttp://www.unc.edu/depts/europe/francophone/1001_nights/1001_eng/multimedia.htm • Barbie controversey • http://books.google.com/books?id=e1mu8uHn-I4C&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=story+of+the+merchant+and+demon+1001+nights&source=bl&ots=G5oCBGgf0r&sig=ZDlVtv_Mjsb-2K4HE7hV6BWP730&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NDtCUpurJqvc4AO094DQBQ&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=story%20of%20the%20merchant%20and%20demon%201001%20nights&f=false • Merhant and demon story