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Weight Management Chapter 9 Q: What causes a pound of body fat? A: 3,500 unburned calories 3,500 calories=pound of body fat A stenographer switches from a typewriter (87 cal/hr) to a computer (72 cal/hr). 15 calories difference 6 hours in work day 5 work days per week
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Weight Management Chapter 9
Q: What causes a pound of body fat? A: 3,500 unburned calories
3,500 calories=pound of body fat • A stenographer switches from a typewriter (87 cal/hr) to a computer (72 cal/hr). • 15 calories difference • 6 hours in work day • 5 work days per week • 50 weeks per year of work • 22,500 calories less expenditure per year • 6.7 pounds of weight gained in one year by changing to a data processor .
Conscious effort Recognize true hunger Avoid environment Hunger/appetite Select alternatives Recognize triggers Possible Ways to Stop the “EAT” Response
Responsible access to foods Stress management Break the habit Remain active Analyze emotional problems Plan Possible Ways to Stop the “EAT” Response
Inattentiveness Habit Hunger/appetite Low self-esteem Environment Sight and smell Possible Triggers for an “Eat” Response
Time of day Mood Boredom Nervousness/ anxiety/stress Hormonal fluctuations Peer/family pressure Possible Triggers for an “Eat” Response
Eating Disorders • Emphasis on physical attractiveness has increased frequency of eating disorders. • All eating disorders are considered a serious health problems. • Anorexia and bulimia are most prime disorders
Factors Influencing Obesity Genetic • Genesinfluence body size and shape, body fat distribution, and metabolic rate
Factors Influencing Obesity Environmental • lifestyle choices
Factors Influencing Obesity Metabolism and energy balance • energy in (as food) versus energy out (resting metabolism, physical activity)
Health Risks of Obesity • Major risk factor for heart disease • Increased risk of CVD, hypertension, gallbladder disease, diabetes • Associated with some cancers • Complications in pregnancy • Respiratory problems • Joint disease
Weight Management Basics • 55% of American adults are overweight • 22% of American adults are obese • One of the most serious challenges to health and wellness in US
Calories in Diet? • A diet fewer than 1600 calories per day will probably not meet the RDAs for all essential nutrients. • No diet should reduce calorie intake below 1500 for men or 1200 for women.
Fat in your diet? • Fat should supply no more than 30% of your average daily calories, which is 66 grams of fat in a 2000-calorie diet each day
Other Macronutrients • Carbohydrates should make up about 55-65% of total daily calories. • Protein should make up about 10-15%.
Affects on Metabolism • Heredity • Behaviors: • Weight loss/gain • Exercise • Increased muscle mass
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) • RMR accounts for 55-75% of daily energy expenditure • Affected by... • heredity • environment • gender • lifestyle • exercise
Other Explanations for Overweight • Weight cycling • Restrained eating • Overeating (binge eating) • Psychological, social, cultural factors
Changing Energy Balance For weight loss, create a negative calorie balance • Increase physical activity • Decreasecalories consumed
What is best strategy? • Individual weight plans are 64% effective • Commercial weight loss programs are 10-15% effective. • Prescription drugs prove to be 5-15% effective.
THINGS THAT DON’T WORK • Diet Aids • promises made by advertising • over reliance can be dangerous • Protein diets • do not meet daily intake requirements. • do not improve athletic performance • can be harmful