A Periodized Training Program for a Division I Collegiate Basketball Player Charles McCarthy Sean McGeown MB Carlos Salas
The Athlete • Division I • Junior • 21 years old • Position: Forward • 6’ 8” • 210 lbs.
Basketball Sport Specific Demands • Agility • Flexibility • Strength • Conditioning and Endurance (Aerobic and Anaerobic) • Reaction Times • Change of Direction Movements • Speed • Power • Acceleration/Deceleration
Basketball Sport Specific Demands Cont’d • Metabolic demands consist of periods of high intensity work followed by quick recovery periods • Explosive Jumping • Work: Rest ratio of 1:2 – 2.5 • Quick first step • Read and react to game situations • Move in any direction at any time • Jump high and quickly in rapid succession
Basketball Specific Fitness Assessment • In-line lunge and overhead squat for mobility screening • T-Test and ladder drills for agility • Vertical jump for power • 1RM Power clean for power • 60 yard sprint • 3RM bench press for strength • 1RM back squat for strength • 400 yard shuttle run for anaerobic capacity • Sit-up and pushup test for local muscular endurance • Sit and Reach test for flexibility
Goals • The athlete would like to make gains in order to improve his status for NBA draft. • Increase vertical jump • Improve level of conditioning • Improve foot speed and overall quickness • Increase strength and muscle mass
Training Priorities • Plyometric drills • Developing core body strength • Form/Technical running • Flexibility with focus on low back and hamstrings • In-season weight lifting for maintenance • Nutrition • On court jumping • Reactions/suicides • Read/react drills • Agility work
Factors Influencing an Annual Program • Exams • Vacation weeks • Other school related activities • Personal Commitments • Traveling • Injury
Periodization of the training program • Annual College Basketball Schedule • Off-season (May-September) • Pre-season (October-November) • In-season (November-February) • Tournament and Post Season (March-April)
Program Design • Hypertrophy phase (May-June) – goal is to increase muscular size. Rest 1.5-2 minutes between sets and exercises. High volume, low intensity. 3 sets of 8-12 reps, 3 times a week. This phase also includes sprint training of at least 60 yards at top speed with complete recovery in between sprints. • Basic strength phase (June-August) – goal is to increase in muscular strength. Rest 2-2.5 minutes between sets and exercises. Lower volume, moderate intensity. 3 sets of 6-8 reps, 4 times a week • Power phase (September-October) – goal is to increase muscular power. Rest 2.5-3 minutes between sets and exercises. Low volume, high intensity. 1-3 sets of 2-4 reps., 3 times a week. • Maintenance phase/Sport specific exercise selection (November) – goal is to maintain muscular power. Rest 2.5-3 minutes between sets and exercises. Low volume, high intensity. 1-3 sets of 2-4 reps, 2 times a week • Continuation of maintenance phase/In-Season (December-April). • Endurance phase (April-May) – goal is to increase muscular endurance. Rest 1-1.5 minutes between sets and exercises. High volume, low intensity. 3 times a week. 3 sets of 12-15 reps.
Dynamic Warm-up/Cool down • Performed prior to and post workout • Examples include: • In-place warm up: In place high knee (or/with external rotation), in place lateral squat (or/with split squat), lateral lunge (or forward lunge), cross behinds (drop lunge), stationary Spiderman. • Dynamic warm up: high knee walk (or with external rotation), heel ups, backward lunge walk (or forward lunge walk), inchworm, high knee skip (or straight leg skip), back pedal, backward run.
Mesocycle for Basic strength training (heavy training) of 9-16 weeks; with example of microcyles:
Basketball Specific Demands • Primary movements are lateral, not vertical • Defensively, players must master lateral and base movements. Emphasis on both toes facing fairly straight, pushing with back leg, not pulling with front leg. • Players must be able to move with balance and be able to react to their opponent. • Movement skills must be linked from cutting and crossovers back to a base stance. • Offensively, a stance with the right positive angles to gain effective first step quickness to create separation. • Stance should be linked to acceleration, deceleration, vertical jump, and spinning.
“Basketball Shape” • A conditioning base is achieved through a series of progressive sprints and interval training. • The strength base is established through a total body weight training program with the emphasis on the power center of the body (hips and legs) and the core. • Upper body needs to be strong, balanced, and flexible.
Basketball Specific Exercises • On court conditioning drills with and without a basketball involve sprinting, dribbling, and shooting skills. • Examples are: • Five and one half • Suicide shuttle • Sideline touch and elbow jump shot • Endline touch and top of the key jump shot • Corner touch and perimeter jump shot
Basketball Specific Exercises • Jumping and quick feet plyometrics to improve vertical jump includes: • Box Jump (Body weight progressing to weighted with dumbbells) • Double Jump • Single Leg Hop • Quick feet plyo
Basketball Specific Exercises • Agility drills are critical because it helps the athlete read and react, move in any direction quickly and under control. These include: • Lane shuffle • Around the lane • Lateral resistance quick step • These drills should last 10-20 secs with all out effort. They should involve quick starts and stops, changes of direction, and movements in all directions
Basketball Specific Exercises • Medicine Ball drills are functional and versatile. They help develop strength (especially core), power, and quickness. These include: • Side toss • Over under and under over • Deep squat overhead pass
Basketball – On Court Conditioning Conditioning drills can be run that also incorporate skill maneuvers (i.e. shooting) to simulate physical and neural fatigue during competition play JS JS JS Reaction / Suicide – time players, strive for improvement; faster times equate to more efficient energy systems Sideline Touch & Elbow Jump Shot – can be for a set time or until a set number of baskets – run or shuffle Around the Lane – can be for a set time, count sections covered, reverse directions; establish competition between players
Basketball Conditioning Drills • 17 - Continue running from sideline to sideline, until you have covered 17 widths of the court. This drill trains acceleration, deceleration, change of direction, agility and the phosphagen and fast glycolysis energy systems. Shoot for 17 lengths in under 1 minute. • Four Squares - Create four areas that are numbered one through four. Complete 2 foot jumps or 1 foot hops from 1-2-3-4, then 4-3-2-1. Record the number of successful completions around the square in 30 seconds. Create competition among teammates. • Wall Passes – using a basketball or a lighter weight medicine ball. Addresses hand quickness, lateral movement and hand-eye coordination.. Stand 5-7 feet from a masonry wall, set a time period (i.e. 20 sec) and perform rapid 2 hand passes against the wall while moving laterally, right and left. Decrease distance from the wall as your speed, skill and strength improve.
References • Boyle, Michael. “Functional Training for Sports.” Human Kinetics 2004. • Foran, Bill. “High-Performance Sports Conditioning.” Human Kinetics 2001. • Baechle, Thomas R. and Earle, Roger W. “Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, NSCA.” Human Kinetics 2nd Edition 2000. • Hoffman, Jay R. et al. “Strength, Speed and Endurance Changes During the Course of a Division I Basketball Season.” Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 1991, Volume 5, Number 3, pp. 144-149 • Hoffman, Jay R. et al. “Strength, Speed and Endurance Changes During the Course of a Division I Basketball Season.” Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 1991, Volume 5, Number 3, pp. 144-149 • Javorek, Istvan. “Yearly Plan of Preparation for basketball and Volleyball Conditioning.” National Strength and Conditioning Association, June 1995, pp. 68-72. • Sthair, Vincent L. “Optimum Performance: Florida State University off-season basketball conditioning program.” NSCA Journal, Volume 7, Number 3, 1985, pp. 54-56. • Hedrick, Allen. “Strength and Power Training for basketball.” NSCA Journal, Volume 15, Number 4, 1993, pp. 31-35. • Owens, Joe. “Strength Training for Basketball: Building Post Players.” National Strength and Conditioning Association, February 1998, pp. 16-21. • Smith, Bobby R. “The University of South Florida’s Off-Season Strength Training for Basketball.” National Strength and Conditioning Association, April 1996, pp. 74-76. • Taylor, John. “A tactical Metabolic Training Model for Collegiate Basketball.” National Strength and Conditioning Association Strength and Conditioning Journal, October 2004, Volume 26, Number 5, pp. 22-29. • Morgan, Dr. Timothy. “EHS 330 Conditioning for Performance.” Class notes for Energy system training, Spring 2007.