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Importance of the Endocrine System

Importance of the Endocrine System. Hormones. Chemical regulators produced by cells that affect cells in another part of the body. Endocrine hormones are produced by endocrine glands and are secreted into the blood. Transported by blood to cells in another part of the body.

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Importance of the Endocrine System

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  1. Importance of the Endocrine System

  2. Hormones • Chemical regulators produced by cells that affect cells in another part of the body. • Endocrine hormones are produced by endocrine glands and are secreted into the blood. • Transported by blood to cells in another part of the body. • By contrast exocrine glands secrete substances through ducts or tubes, onto a body surface or into a cavity (ex. Sweat glands, mucous glands, digestive glands)

  3. Hormones activation sites of hormones non-target vs. target:

  4. Chemical Control Systems • Nervous system & endocrine system work together to control organs & tissues. • Nervous system  rapid, short-term adjustments. Neurotransmitters • Endocrine system  slower, long-term adjustments. Hormones • Handout 8.1-3

  5. Chemical Control Systems Nervous system and endocrine system both operating in the hypothalamus… • The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland through nerve signals. • The pituitary gland stimulates the endocrine glands which secrete hormones that affects the hypothalamus.

  6. Endocrine Glands • *Handout 8.1-1*

  7. Chemical Signals: Steroid and Protein Hormones • Steroid Hormones • Made from cholesterol. • Fat soluble  diffuses into cell • E.g., sex hormones and cortisol • Hormone-receptor complex acts in nucleus to influence transcription • *Handout 8.1-4* • Protein Hormones • Made from amino acids. • Water soluble – attaches to receptor cell on target cell membrane • Changes activity of enzymes inside cell • E.g., insulin and growth hormones.

  8. Steroid Hormones 1 3 2 4 5 • *Handout 8.1-4*

  9. Protein Hormones 1 2 3 4 • *Handout 8.1-4*

  10. The Pituitary Gland • *Handout 8.1-5*

  11. The Pituitary Gland • Referred to as the “master gland”. • Posterior lobe stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus. • Anterior lobe produces its own hormones, but the release is regulated by the hypothalamus. • *Handout 8.1-5*

  12. Posterior lobe of pituitary gland1) Hypothalamus synthesizes ADH and oxytocin2) specialized nerve cells transport ADH and oxytocin to posterior pituitary3) hormones released into blood stream as needed 1 2 3 • *Handout 8.1-5*

  13. Anterior lobe of pituitary gland • 1) Hormones secreted by nerve ends of hypothalamus • 2) Hormones transported in the blood to pituitary gland • 3) Pituitary gland stimulated to release pituitary hormones, which are carried • by blood to target tissues 1 • *Handout 8.1-2* • *Handout 8.1-5* 2 3

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