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Importance of the Endocrine System

Importance of the Endocrine System

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Importance of the Endocrine System

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  1. Importance of the Endocrine System

  2. Hormones • Chemical regulators produced by cells that affect cells in another part of the body. • Endocrine hormones are produced by endocrine glands and are secreted into the blood. • Transported by blood to cells in another part of the body. • By contrast exocrine glands secrete substances through ducts or tubes, onto a body surface or into a cavity (ex. Sweat glands, mucous glands, digestive glands)

  3. Hormones activation sites of hormones non-target vs. target:

  4. Chemical Control Systems • Nervous system & endocrine system work together to control organs & tissues. • Nervous system  rapid, short-term adjustments. Neurotransmitters • Endocrine system  slower, long-term adjustments. Hormones • Handout 8.1-3

  5. Chemical Control Systems Nervous system and endocrine system both operating in the hypothalamus… • The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland through nerve signals. • The pituitary gland stimulates the endocrine glands which secrete hormones that affects the hypothalamus.

  6. Endocrine Glands • *Handout 8.1-1*

  7. Chemical Signals: Steroid and Protein Hormones • Steroid Hormones • Made from cholesterol. • Fat soluble  diffuses into cell • E.g., sex hormones and cortisol • Hormone-receptor complex acts in nucleus to influence transcription • *Handout 8.1-4* • Protein Hormones • Made from amino acids. • Water soluble – attaches to receptor cell on target cell membrane • Changes activity of enzymes inside cell • E.g., insulin and growth hormones.

  8. Steroid Hormones 1 3 2 4 5 • *Handout 8.1-4*

  9. Protein Hormones 1 2 3 4 • *Handout 8.1-4*

  10. The Pituitary Gland • *Handout 8.1-5*

  11. The Pituitary Gland • Referred to as the “master gland”. • Posterior lobe stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus. • Anterior lobe produces its own hormones, but the release is regulated by the hypothalamus. • *Handout 8.1-5*

  12. Posterior lobe of pituitary gland1) Hypothalamus synthesizes ADH and oxytocin2) specialized nerve cells transport ADH and oxytocin to posterior pituitary3) hormones released into blood stream as needed 1 2 3 • *Handout 8.1-5*

  13. Anterior lobe of pituitary gland • 1) Hormones secreted by nerve ends of hypothalamus • 2) Hormones transported in the blood to pituitary gland • 3) Pituitary gland stimulated to release pituitary hormones, which are carried • by blood to target tissues 1 • *Handout 8.1-2* • *Handout 8.1-5* 2 3