Five Bases of Power (Influence) • Reward power:Promising or granting rewards. • Coercive power:Threats or actual punishment. • Legitimate power:Based on position or formal authority. • Expert power: Influence based on being perceived as having important knowledge or skill. • Referent power:Power of one’s personality (charisma).
Bases/Types of Power Positional - Likely Response Legitimate - Compliance Reward - Compliance Coercive - Resistance Personal Referent - Commitment Expert - Commitment
Bases/Types of Power Industrial Workers’ Perceptions of Previous Frequency of Use (Ranks)Students Legitimate - 1 2 Reward - 3 3 Coercive - 5 5 Referent - 4 4 Expert - 2 1
More Types? • Information? • Association?
General Strategies for Gaining Power These strategies work best when there is “non-substitutability”; i.e., others are dependent on you for these things. • Provide Scarce Resources • Provide Information • Resolve Important Problems • Reduce Uncertainty
2 - Promotions 10-Hiring 8-Pay 6-Budget 4-Facilities 3-Delegation 1-Interdept. Coord. 9-Personnel Policies 11-Discipline 5-Work Appraisal 7-Grievances Politics in Org. DecisionsQuestionnaire
Organizational Politics • Organizational politics are the activities managers engage in to increase their power and use it to achieve their goals. • Politics can be negative or positive. • Political activity helps get things done that are not specifically assigned in job descriptions. • Political activity allows a manager to gain support for an idea, e.g., a needed change.
Political Behavior • Least Political (Positive Politics) • Personal Goals compatible with org’s. • Sanctioned use of power (Socialized) • e.g., developing skills, using referent power • Most Political (Negative Politics) • Personal and Org. goals incompatible • Unsanctioned use of power (Personalized) • e.g., withholding information, backstabbing, using coercive power
Political Strategies for Gaining Power • Networking associate with the right people (people with the power or resources to help or hurt you). • Coalescing combine resources with others to pursue common objectives • Co-opting form alliances with those who are obstacles
Managing Organizational Politics • Have rules, policies when appropriate • Establish a climate of trust • Make goals clear • Measure and Reward performance • Stress teamwork over competition • Break-up negative political factions
Major Leadership Theory Issues • Are leaders born that way or do they learn leadership behaviors? (Traits vs. Behaviors) • Is there one best way to lead in all situations? (Universal vs. Contingency) • If Contingency, what variables are important? • e.g., Followers, Task, Environment • How much should the leader allow subordinates to participate in decisions? • How can you improve leadership?
Universal Contingent Traits Type I: Trait Theories Type III: Fiedler Leader Attri- butes Stressed Behaviors Type II: Ohio St., Mich., Lead. Grid Type IV: Hersey-Blanch., Path-Goal, Vroom Types of Leadership Theories Applicability
Types of Leadership Theories • Trait Theories • e.g., Self-Confidence, Persistence • Don’t predict actions well • Don’t explain how traits translate into action • Universal Theories • Research disproves • Contingency-Style Theories (Type IV) • Most prevalent today
Traits thatGenerally DifferentiateLeaders from Nonleaders • Drive • Desire to Lead • Honesty and Integrity • Self-Confidence • Intelligence • Job-Relevant Knowledge
Category 1 Initiating Structure--- Job-Centered---------- Conc. for Production- Task-Oriented--------- Directive---------------- Category 2 Consideration Employee-Centered Concern for People Relationship-Oriented Supportive 2 Basic Leadership Styles(in Types II, III, and IV Theories)
THE OHIO STATE MODEL OF LEADER BEHAVIORS Low Initiating Structure High Consideration High Initiating Structure High Consideration High Consideration Low Initiating Structure Low Consideration High Initiating Structure Low Consideration Low Low High Initiating Structure
Blake & Mouton’sLeadership Grid High Country Club Management Team Management Middle-of-the-Road Management Concern for People Authority-Compliance Management Impoverished Management Low Low Concern for Production High
Michigan Studies Employee-Centered Leaders Job-Centered Leaders (Leaders are supposedly Either on OR the other - These were viewed as opposite extremes of the same continuum - cf., Fiedler)
Contingency Approaches Identify relevant Situational Variables and what Leader Traits or Styles are appropriate for each.
Fieldler Leader-Member Relations Task Structure Leader Position Power Hersey and Blanchard Follower Readiness (Ability, Willingness) Path-Goal Theory Subordinates’ Ability, Personality Environment Task WorkGroup Organization Authority System Vroom What is needed to facilitate a Quality decision What is needed to bolster employee Morale Situational Variables
Situational Variables Leader-Member Relations Good vs. Poor Task Structure Structured vs. Unstructured Leader Position Power Strong vs. Weak Leader Traits Relationship-oriented (High LPC) Task-oriented (Low LPC) (Fiedler believed it is easier to change a situation than to change a leader) Fiedler’s Contingency Theory (Type III Theory)
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Predictions: Task-Oriented Leaders -Most effective when situation is either highly favorable or highly unfavorable (research supports well) Relationship-Oriented Leaders -Most effective when situation is moderately favorable (less research support)
Situational Variables Followers’ Readiness / Maturity is due to : Ability Willingness Leader Behaviors Task Behavior (High or Low) Relationship Behavior (High or Low) 4 Combinations Including: Telling (H-L) Selling (H-H) Participating (L-H) Delegating (L-L) Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Theory (Type IV)
Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership High High Relationship and->->-> Low Task High Task <-<-<-and High Relationship Participating Selling Relationship Behavior Low Relationship <-<-<-and Low Task High Task and->->-> Low Relationship Telling Delegating Low Task Behavior High High Low Moderate R4 R3 R2 R1
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Participating S3 Share ideas and facilitate decision making Selling S2 Explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification Delegating S4 Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation Telling S1 Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance Low Task Behavior Low High Follower ReadinessHigh Moderate Low R4 R3 R2 R1 Follower-Directed Leader-Directed
Path-Goal Theory (Type IV) A leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates' motivation by: • Clarifying the subordinates' path (i.e., helping them reach the goal) • Giving things they value as rewards for reaching the goal • A major contribution is the “Achievement Oriented” leadership style in which the leader is able to provide goals that give subordinates an incentive
Situational Variables Follower Characteristics e.g, abilities, motivation Workplace Characteristics e.g., task difficulty Leader Behaviors Directive leadership Achievement-Oriented leadership Supportive leadership Participative leadership Path-Goal Theory
Vroom’sNormative Decision Model (Leader-Participation) (Type IV) • Helps gauge the appropriate amount of participation for subordinates • 5 levels of leader participation styles ranging from highly autocratic to highly democratic.
Vroom Model • Participation is permitted primarily to: • Enhance Decision Quality • Foster Subordinate Morale • Or Both • Series of questions asked about the situation (e.g., Does the leader have the expertise to solve the problem alone?, How important is subordinate commitment to the decision?)
Vroom’sNormative Decision Model Styles • AI – Leader makes decision alone • AII – Leader obtains information from subordinates, then makes decision alone • CI – Leader obtains suggestions from subordinates individually, then makes decision alone • CII – Leader obtains suggestions from subordinates collectively, then makes decision alone • G – Decision by group consensus
Trends Toward Greater Participation Reasons: • Education • Technology • Deregulation • Downsizing • Globalization
Newer Leadership Concepts Not highly developed as leadership theories. Often seen as beyond the bounds of traditional theories. Stress what you might call the “Visionary Hero” • Transformational Leader • Brings about innovation and change. • Imagines how the future could be and inspires followers to work toward creating that future. • Charismatic Leader • A leader whose personality motivates subordinates to exceed their required performance level.
Kinds of Charismatic Leaders • Unethical Charismatics • control and manipulate followers • only want positive feedback • motivated by self-interest • Ethical Charismatics • recognize others’ contributions • open to positive and negative feedback • concerned with the interests of the group
Superleadership(and earlier views) • Strong Man – Authoritarian (similar to Type I) • Transactor - Motivates subordinates using feedback and rewards (similar to Types II – IV) • Visionary Hero - Inspires using emotion, but still the decision maker • Superleader - Helps followers become self-leaders or “superfollowers”
Yes People Effective (Super) Followers High Sheep Alienated Followers Low Lo TYPES OF FOLLOWERS Employee Activity/ Initiative Survivors High Employee Critical Thinking
Implications of Leadership Theories • Know your preferred Style. (Fiedler) • Know and care about your Followers. (Hersey & Blanchard, Path-Goal) • Know and care about the Task. (Fiedler, Path-Goal) • Understand the Environment affecting you and your followers. (Path-Goal) • Fit your Style to your Followers, the Task, and the Environment. (This may include making changes in S, F, T, or E.) • Enhance your Referent and Expert Power (Charismatic, etc.) • Visualize the Future and prepare your Followers for it (Charismatic, Superleadership)