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Survey of: Internet Content in the Classroom

Survey of: Internet Content in the Classroom

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Survey of: Internet Content in the Classroom

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  1. Survey of:Internet Content in the Classroom Beechfield Elementary School Educational Technology Outreach Director, Davina Pruitt-Mentle December 1, 2001

  2. Outline • Internet Background and Terms • Search Engines & Strategies • Search Activity • Web Resources • Web Site Evaluations • Issues Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  3. Knowledge Objectives • Describe the characteristics of the Internet, including its advantages, limitations, and instructional applications. • Discuss the advantages and limitations of using the Internet for classroom-based instruction. • Select a grade level you are interested in teaching. Discuss the pros and cons of the amount of access and supervision students at this level should have when using the Internet. • Explain the advantages and limitations of offering instruction totally on the Internet. • Discuss appropriate etiquette when using the Internet. • Describe the characteristics of a wide are network (WAN). • Describe the characteristics of local area networks (LANs), including their advantages, limitations, and applications. • Describe the characteristics of intranets, including their advantages, limitations, and instructional applications. • Compare and contrast the characteristics, advantages, and limitations of local area networks, wide area networks, intranets, and the Internet from an educational or training perspective. • Select an example from a “Copyright Concerns” or create another example and prepare a presentation for your class that reflects your opinion on the issue. Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  4. Knowledge Objectives • Describe the purpose of each of the following Internet resources: Web Browsers, search engines, gophers, e-mail, listserv, bulletin boards, chat rooms, FTP and streaming video/audio, Web authoring tools • Identify an Internet resource that would meet a specific written or visual communication need. • Select and use an appropriate Web authoring tool to meet a specific need. • Identify recent developments on each of several ethical issues related to Internet use. • Develop a plan for an Internet project designed according to a directed or a constructivist model. Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  5. Network Electronic mail (email) Listserve Download Chat room Internet Wide are network (WAN) Local area network (LAN) Intranet Extranet Internet service provider (ISP) Information superhighway Cyberspace Modem Distance learning Gateway Portal World Wide Web (WWW – the Web) Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) Website Uniform resource locator (URL)Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Search engine WebQuest/Treasure /Scavenger Hunt Computer platform Firewall Bulletin board Newsgroup LEXICON Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  6. Definitions & Background • Connected computers enable people to communicate  network • Exchange messages with one or more people through electronic mail  e-mail • Communicate with several people simultaneously (like a meeting) listserv • Get or download material (text, files, video, images, audio) • Can chat in real time through chat rooms Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  7. Types of Connections • Wide area network (WAN) –less complex than Internet; can connect geographic locations or within school district • Local area network (LAN) – a network within a school or lab; can even connect computers between rooms at home. Allows you to share files and other resources. Relies on a central file server that “serves” all the others • Intranet is a proprietary or closed network that connects multiple sites across the country-- usually private and accessible with passwords etc. Allows different departments with different computer platforms (hardware and/or operating system) to communicate. Sometimes a software package called a firewall prevents external users from accessing the internal network ( sometimes makes it hard to get outside access) • Extranets – networks of intranets • These type of “connections” allow people to connect and communicate with each other even if using different applications (word vs. works) or platforms (Mac vs. PC) Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  8. Connections Intranet Internet Firewall Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  9. Internet History • The U.S. DOD developed 1st version of Internet during the 1970’s for researchers to communicate • Project(s) funded by DOD Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) – ARPAnet. • Internet initially conceived :1989 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (European Particle Physics Lab in Switzerland)/NSF funded project based on ARPAnet for universities to communicate • Needed a wide variety of information to be shared and distributed to many different computers and platforms • “Universal readership” Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  10. Internet History cont. • Internet made up of thousands of networks worldwide • No one in charge of Internet - No governing body • Internet backbone owned by private companies Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  11. Internet Providers: • Research and Educational Institutions • Government and Military Entities • Businesses • Private Organizations • Commercial Providers Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  12. Looking at the Net Taken from: http://www.cio.com/WebMaster/sem2_net.html Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  13. Understanding the Map • Computers use TCP/IP to communicate (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) • Computers use client/server architecture Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  14. Web vs. Internet • The Internet connects thousands of computers across the world, but it is the web that allows communication to occur • Web - abstraction and common set of services on top of the Internet • Web - set of protocols and tools that let us share information with each other Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  15. WWW • System of Internet servers that support hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface • Almost all protocols accessible on Internet are accessible on web (email - FTP - Telnet - etc) • In addition, WWW own protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  16. HTTP • Hypertext - means of information retrieval • Contains links that connect to other documents • Links selected by user • Virtual “web” of connections Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  17. HTTP (cont) • Produce HTTP through HTML • HyperText Markup Language • Way of writing or creating with “tags” added to tell information • i.e. <b> Bold </b> yields Bold See Handout Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  18. WWW cont. • WWW or Web or W3 includes all information, text, images, audio, video, and computational services that are accessible from the internet • July 8, 1999 Nature - approximately 800 million pages of publicly accessible information(1) • Web continues to grow, tripling in size over the past two years(2) (1) Steve Lawrence & C. Lee Giles, “Accessibility of Information on the Web,” Nature 400 (July 8, 1999), 107 (2) OCLC Office of Research, “June 1999 Web Statistics” Web Characterization Project Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  19. Web Popular Because: • Easy to use • Easy to navigate • Combines words, graphics, sound, video • Easy to Publish • Plethora of information • Reach larger audience Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  20. Summary: Web vs. Internet • What is the relationship between the web and the Internet? • The Internet contains physical components • computers • networks • services Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  21. The Internet Student University LAN ISP Internet Corporate LAN Government LAN Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  22. Internet Connections • Any person on the Internet can communicate with any other person on Internet regardless of type of computers because of the standard protocols that allow computers to communicate with each other • Internet is free, except access fee charged by Internet service provider (ISP) who starts and maintains your account (AOL, Prodigy, BCPSS, UMCP) • Internet superhighway = Internet but also the network of cables, fibers, telephone and satellites that go with it. This is sometimes referred to as the electronic “universe” or cyberspace • Connecting to other computers requires a modem, a device that changes computer data into audio signals for transmission across telephone lines. Communication software connects the computers to a telecommunication service. Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  23. To Connect to the Internet You Need: • your computer (the client) • the ISP • the server (host computer) • telecommunication network (communication software, modem and phone or cable modem) • your computer runs the communication software  modem with software provides a path between your computer and your ISP • ISP provides you a link to the Internet Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  24. Internet Services • E-mail • Bulletin boards & listservs • Information search capabilities (including database of pictures, texts etc.) • Access to highly specialized computer programs not readily available to individuals • Live chats (Tappedin, WebCT) • Audio • Video-based communication (CU-seeMe or NetMeeting) Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  25. IP Addresses: Internet Protocol • Assigns “a code” to each Internet address • contains three parts • person’s name or user name (pseudonym) • computer network they go through • type of organization • i.e. dp151@umail.umd.edu • name computer network type of organization Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  26. Organization Abbreviations • Commercial com • Educational edu • Government (U.S.) gov • Military (U.S.) mil • Service networks net • Nonprofit organization org Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  27. International Abbreviations Usually a 2 letter abbreviation • Australia au • Canada ca • Italy it • Mexico mx • Netherlands nl Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  28. Internet Usage • Users can communicate with one another through discussion groups • Newsgroup (chat groups or news groups) • Mailing lists (listserv) • Students and teachers can access information from a variety of sources (databases, libraries, educational sites) • Distance Learning or hybrid models (F2F w/ web enhancement) • WebCT • Blackboard • TeacherWeb • Tappedin • Educational and commercial networks are developing ways to connect to the Internet to get a variety of services through gateways or portals Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  29. Internet Language • Go to: http://www.whatis.com/ • check out chat acronyms Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  30. WWW: Access to the Internet Summary • WWW (the Web) is not separate from the Internet, but it is not equal to it • It rides on to of the Internet like PowerPoint runs on top of Windows • The Web is a communication “tool” or series of protocols between the client and server • Web protocol = hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) ensures compatibility before transferring the information • The Web consists of web pages or documents that are written or coded through a Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). An individual collection of pages = website (book vs. pages in book). The Web is basically a file formatting standard and a set of programs (browsers and helpers) that can read this HTML. • Users access a site by entering its address or URL (uniform resource locator) • You enter this in your browser -software like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator that is needed to search and access multimedia information. These often have to be upgraded since newer and fancier websites with more bells and whistlers are being added (audio and video) Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  31. How Do I Find Information on the Internet? • Join an email discussion or USENET newsgroup • Go directly to a site if you have the address • Browse • Explore subject directory • Conduct Search Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  32. Browsers • Netscape Navigator (Communicator) • Product of Netscape (Now owned by AOL) • Originally was dominant • Multi-platform (all operating systems) • Internet Explorer • Product of Microsoft • Current Dominant Browser • Not available for all operating systems • Browser compatibility problems can cause web page problems Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  33. Netscape Search Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  34. Netscape Search • 1: Access to different search engines • 2. Type words or phrases into text entry box • 3. Click Button • 4. Preserve favorite search engine Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  35. Internet Explorer Search • Separate Panel In Browser • Uses MicroSoft Network search Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  36. Internet Explorer Search • Direct access to only Microsoft Network’s search engines • Allows easy access to different types of search • Web pages • People • Businesses • Maps Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  37. Internet Keywords • Type straight in location bar of Netscape/Explorer • Simple words instead of URL (uniform resource location) • “Words” tie to websites • Can be tied to language preference • Example: Typing in maryland converts to http://www.state.md.us/ Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  38. Know the URL Address: Uniform Resource Locator • “Address” of a file on the Internet • Contains type of protocol followed by the computer name, directory and file name • Examples • http://www.capecod.net/Wixon/wixon.htm • gopher://gopher.boombox.micro/ • ftp:// wuarchive.wustl.edu/pub/windows/psp3.zip • mailto:kschrock@capecod.net Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  39. Anatomy of a Web Address • protocol://host/path/filename See handout “Anatomy of a Web Address” Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  40. Do a Search • With A Search Engine Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  41. Two Basic Approaches to Searching(although not really “basic”) • Search Engines • Subject Directories Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  42. How Does Information Get Indexed by the Search Tools • A publisher of a web page can register the site with the search engine or directory • Database collects data autonomously Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  43. SearchEngines Computer built index of information on web More inclusive Used to find specific resources Searchable by keyword Excessive “hits” Every page of a Website is indexed Better for general searches, but can be used to find specific information Directories Human aided, organized list May be general or subject-specific May be able to “search” directory Google - general NetTech Educational Technology Coordinator Website - subject specific User has control of browsing Fixed vocabulary Links go to Website home pages only Better at general searches Search Engines vs. Directories Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  44. What are Search Engines? • Designed to assist you in searching through the enormous amount of information on the Web • No single search tool has everything • Each engine is a large database which utilizes different search techniques and tools (spiders or robots) to build indexes to the Internet (some also utilize submissions and administration) Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  45. Which Search Engine? • Yahoo • Altavista • Excite • Google • NorthernLights • Hotbot • Infoseek See Handout - “The Little Search Engine that Could” Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  46. How to Choose Consider • Size of the database (# of URLs) • Currency of the database (updates) • Search interface • Help screens • Search features • Results listed (# of documents retrieved) • Relevance of results Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  47. More About Search Engines • Searches for matching terms (keywords or several keywords) • Results “ranked” by relevancy (for some) • Can search by • subject or category • keyword • Learn about each search engine’s description, options, and rules and restrictions Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  48. GO TO http://www.google.com/help.html Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  49. Searches for exact matches • Try different versions of your search term • Example: “Boston hotel” vs. “Boston hotels” • Rephrase query • Example: “cheap plane tickets” vs. “cheap airplane tickets” Davina Pruitt-Mentle

  50. Automatically places “and” between words (expands search) • To reduce search – • add more terms in original search • refine search within the current search results. (adding terms to first words will return a subset of the original query) • Exclude a word by using a – sign • Example: to search bass but not speaker  bass –speaker • Does not support “or” operator • Does not support “stemming” or “wildcard” searches • Not case sensitive Davina Pruitt-Mentle