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  1. WHAT’S THE LATEST: WITH THE GPS? Nicolette Green May 1, 2009 1st period

  2. SSWH # 1 • The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE.

  3. #1 a.) Describe the development of Mesopotamian societies. • A desert climate that dominates the landscape between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia. A plain that became known as Mesopotamia. B.) Explain the development of monotheism. Monotheism is the belief in a single god, comes from the Greek words mono, meaning “one” and ism meaning “ god-worship”. The Hebrews proclaimed Yahweh as the one and only God. C.) Discuss the early trading networks and writing systems. Trading in ancient times also connected the Mediterranean sea with other centers of world commerce, such as, south and East Asia. Several land routes crossed central Asia and Connected India. D.) Define and discuss the importance of cuneiform Cuneiform is a system of writing with wedged shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 BC. Hieroglyphics is an ancient Egyptian writing system was phonetic-that is, one sign was used for one sound.

  4. SSWH # 2 • The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 110 BCE to 500 CE.

  5. #2 • A.) Discuss the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire. Discuss the Golden Age • Chaundragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda King, and in 321 BC claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire. In 301 BC, Chaundragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years. Then Asoka, Chaundragupta’s grandson, brought the Mauryan Empire to its greatest heights. Later Chandra Gupta II, no relation to Chaundragupta Maurya. After he died, new invaders threatened northern India. The empire ended about 535 AD. • B.) Explain the development and the impact of the Hinduism and Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of Buddhism. • Hinduism is a complex polytheistic religion that blended Aryan beliefs with the many gods and cults. Buddhism teaches that desire causes suffering and that human should overcome desire by following the eightfold path. • Buddhism has influenced Indian art. Artist carved huge statues of the Buddha for people to worship. Hinduism had 3 gods; brahma ,vishu, and shiva. C.) Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou and Qin. Around 1027 BC people called the Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty. The Zhou had adopted much of the Shang culture. The Zhou ruled from around 1027 to 2256 BC. The Zhou empire was a generally peaceful and stable.

  6. SSWH # 2 • .In the third century BC, the Qin dynasty replaced the Zhou dynasty. By 202 BC, the Qin dynasty gave way to the Han Dynasty. • D.) Discuss Confucianism. What impact did it have? Discuss the Mandate of Heaven. • Confucianism is a way of life based on the teachings of a Chinese scholar Confucius. Confucianism has greatly influenced peoples spiritual belief as well • The Mandate of Heaven is the belief that the permission to rule was given from God. A wicked or foolish king could lose the Mandate of Heaven and lose the right to rule. The Mandate of Heaven became central to Chinese view of government

  7. SSWH # 3 • The student will examine the political, philosophical, and cultural interaction of classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400 CE.

  8. #3 • A.) Compare the origins and structure of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. • The Roman Republic: around 600 B.C., and Etruscan became the king of Rome. A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. • The Greek Polis: by 750 B.C., the city-state, or polis was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece. A polis was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside. • B.) Identify the ideas and impact of important individuals to include Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the diffusion of Greek culture by Aristotle’s pupil Alexander the Great. • Socrates was one critic of the Sophists, he believed that absolute standards did exist for truth and justice. Plato was a student of Socrates and was in his late 20’s when his teacher died. Plato was most famous for “The Republic”. Aristotle was the philosopher that came close to summarizing all the knowledge up to his time. One of Aristotle’s greatest pupil was Alexander The Great, the song of King Philip II o Macedonia. Julius Caesar took control in 60 B.C, and joined forces with Crassius and Pompey. On January 10, 49 B.C., Ceaser’s army defeated Pompey. • C.) Analyze the contributions of Hellenistic and Roman culture . • As a result of Alexander’s policies, a vibrant new culture emerged. Greek culture blended with Egyptian. This blending became known as the Hellenistic culture. In their work, Eratosthenes and Antiochus used a geometry text complied by Euclid. Euclid was a highly regarded mathematician who taught in Alexandria.

  9. # 3 • D.) Describe polytheism in the Greek and Greek Roman world and the origins and diffusion of Christianity in the Roman world. • Polytheism was the belief in many gods, it was very popular in Greek and Roman world. Strengthened by their conviction that he had triumphed over death, the followers of Jesus continued to spread his ideas. • Christianity spread slowly but steadily throughout the Roman Empire. • E.) Analyze the factors that led to the collapse of the western Roman Empire • The decline of the western roman empire took place over many years. Its final collapse was the result of worsening internal problems, the separation of the western Empire from the wealthier eastern part and outside invasions. The last emperor, a 14-year old boy named Romulus Augustulus, was ousted by German forces in 476. Even though Rome’s political power in the west ended, its cultural influence did not.

  10. SSWH #4 • The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE.

  11. #4 • A.) Explain the relationship of the Byzantine Empire to the Roman Empire. • The Byzantine Empire took over the western Roman Empire when it fell in the fifth century, after being overrun by invading Germanic tribes. It had been divided into western and eastern empires, and its capital had moved east from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium. The city would become known as Constantinople after the emperor Constantine, who mad it the capital in A.D. 350. • B.) Describe the significance of Justinian’s law code, Theodora and the role of women, and the Byzantine art and architecture. • Having unified the two empires, Justinian setup a panel of legal experts to regulate Byzantium's increasingly complex society. The panel created a single, uniform code known as the Justinian code. The Justinian code decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life. Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women’s rights and criminal justice were just some of those areas. • C.) Analyze the establishment of Christianity as the official religion of the Byzantine Empire. • Eastern Christianity built its heritage on the works of early Church fathers. On was Saint Basil , who, around 357, wrote rules for the life of the monks and Christians should behave. Because of political conflicts and differences in belief, the western and eastern parts of the Christian church split apart in 1054.

  12. # 4 • D.) Analyze the role of Constantinople as a trading and religious center. • The main street running through Constantinople was the Middle Way. Merchant stalls lined the main street. Products from the most distant corners of Asia, Africa, and Europe passed through everywhere. • E.) Explain the influence of the Byzantine Empire on Russia, with Particular attention to its impact on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev. • Roman leaders had divided the empire in 395, largely due to difficulties in communications between the eastern and the troubled western parts of the empire. From Kiev, the Vikings could sail by river and sea to Constantinople. There they could trade for products from distant lands. The Russian state would become a genuine empire during the long 43-year reign of Ivan III. In 1480, Ivan made a final break with the Mongols.

  13. SSWH #5 • The student will trace the origins and expansion of Islamic World between 600 CE and 1300 CE.

  14. #5 • A.) Explain the origins of Islam and the growth of the Islamic Empire. • The cultures of the Arabian Peninsula were in constant contact with one another for centuries , southwest Asia was abridge between Africa, Asia, and Europe, where goods were traded and new ideas were shared. In the city Ka’aba, the Arabs associated this house of worship with Abraham, a Hebrew prophet and a believer in on God. • B.) Identify the Muslim trade routes to India, China, Europe, and Africa and assess the economic impact of this trade. • At this time, two major sea-trading networks existed- the Mediterranean sea and the Indian ocean. Through these networks, the Muslim Empire could engage in the sea trade with the rest of the world. The land network connected the silk roads of China and India with Europe and Africa. • C.) Explain the reasons for split between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims. • The Sufi, rejected the luxurious life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path. Vigorous religious and political opposition to the Umayyad Caliphate led to its downfall. Rebels groups overthrew the Umayyad in the year 750. The most powerful of those groups, the Abbasids, took control of the empire. • D.) identify the contributions of Islamic scholars in medicine and geography.

  15. # 5 • Ibn Battuta, 1325 he traveled to Mecca for a pilgrimage and while there he decided to devote his life to travel. Among other places, he visited Africa, Russia, India, and China. Ibn Sina was born in 980 C.E, in the village of Afshana near Bukan which today, is located in the far south of Russia. His father , Abdullah, an adherent of the Islamic Sect, was from Balkh. • E.) Describe the impact of the crusades in both the Islamic world and Europe. • The crusades were a series of religion driven military campaigns waged by much of the Christian Europe against external and internal opponents. Crusades were fought mainly against Muslims, though campaigns were also directed against pagan Slavs, Jews, Russians, and Greek Orthodox. • F.) Analyze the impact of the expansion of the Mongol empire. • The Mongol Empire was the largest continuous empire and the second overall after the British empire. It emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes in modern day Mongolia, and grew through invasions. • G.) Analyze the relationship between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. • Judaism is a set of beliefs and practices originating from the saga of the ancient Israelites, as embodied and codified in the Hebrew Bible. Christianity centered on the life and teachings. Islam is a monotheistic, Abrahimic religion originating with the teachings of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.

  16. SSWH #6 • The student will describe the diverse characteristics of early African societies before 1800.

  17. #6 • A.) Identify the Bantu migration patterns and contribution to settled agriculture. • Bantu speakers were not one people, but rather a group of peoples who shared certain cultural characteristics. When they moved, the Bantu speakers shared their skills with the people they met, adapted their methods to suit each new environments and learned new customs. • B.) Describe the development and decline of the Sudanic kingdoms. • The trade routes crossed the savanna through the region farmed by the Soninke people. The Soninke people called their ruler Ghana, or war chief. Muslim traders began to use the word to refer to the Soninke region. By the 700’s Ghana was a kingdom, and its rulers were growing rich by taking the goods that traders carried through their territory. • C.) Describe the trading networks by examining trans –Sahara trade in gold, salt and slaves. • Villages along the east coast began to develop into important trade cities. By 1100, waves of Bantu-speaking people had migrated across central Africa to the east coast. There, they established family and fishing villages. Slowly, the existing coastal villages grew into bustling seaports, build on trade between East African merchants and traders from Arabia, Persia, and India.

  18. #6 • D.) Analyze the process of religious syncretism as a blending of traditional African beliefs with new ideas from Islam and Christianity. • The societies south of the Sahara like all human cultures shared common elements. One of these elements was the importance of the basic social unit, the family. Besides parents and children, this primary group often included grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins, in an extended family. Families that shared common ancestors sometimes formed groups known as clans. African peoples organized themselves into family groups.

  19. SSWH #7 • The student will analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics.

  20. #7 • A.) Explain the manorial system and feudalism: include the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne. • The manor system rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs. The lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland and protection from bandits. A manor usually only covered a square miles of land. Charlemagne ruled the Frankish Kingdom. • B.) Describe the political impact of Christianity. • Weddings could take place only wit the lord’s consent. After all these payments to the lord, peasant families owed the village priest a tithe, or church tax. A tithe represented one tenth of the income. Serfs lived in crowded cottages, close to their neighbors. In 590, Gregory I, also Gregory the great became Pope. • C.) Explain the role of the church in medieval society. • The church played a major part in the medieval society. It was the site of both religious services and public meetings. Power was based on status. Church structure consisted of different ranks of clergy, or religious officials.

  21. # 7 • D.) Describe how increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities. • As Roman centers of trade and government collapsed, nobles retreated to the rural areas. Roman cities were left without strong leadership. Other city dwellers also fled to the countryside, where they grew their own food. The breakdown of trade destroyed Europe’s cities as economic centers.

  22. SSWH #8 • The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of societies in Central and South America.

  23. #8 • A.) Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and the Inca empires. • The homeland of the Maya stretched from southern Mexico into northern central America. The remarkable history of the Mayan suddenly abandoned many of their cities. The Aztecs arrived in the valley of Mexico around A.D. 1200. The Inca built their empire on cultural foundations thousands of years old. • B.) Compare the culture of the Americas. • In some ways the early North American culture were less developed than those of South America and Mesopotamia. The North American groups created no great empires. They left few ruins as spectacular as those of ancient Mexico or Peru

  24. SSWH #9 • The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation.

  25. # 9 • A.) Explain the social, economic, and political changes that contributed to rise of Florence and the ideas of Machiavelli. • States like Florence and Milan were relatively small, a high percentage of citizens could be intensely involved in political life. Merchants dominated politics. The Price, by Niccolo Machiavelli also examines the imperfect conduct of human beings. • B.) Identify artistic achievements of Leonardo de Vinci and Michelangelo. • Leonardo de Vinci was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist. A true “ Renaissance Man” he was interested in how things worked. He was the author of the famous painting Mona Lisa. Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a renaissance man. H excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. • C.) Explain the main characteristics of humanism. • Some followed the true example of Dante. He wrote in the vernacular, his, native language instead of Latin. Petrarch was one of the earliest and most influential humanists. Some have called him the father of humanism. Humanism is a intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements.

  26. # 9 • D.) Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation. • Martin Luther’s parents wanted him to be a Lawyer. Instead, he became a monk and a teacher. All he wanted was to be a good Christian, not to lead a religious revolution. In 1517, Luther decided to a Public stand against the actions of a friar named Johann Tetzel. Protestantism is a branch of Christianity It developed of out of the Reformation, the 16-century protest in Europe against beliefs and practices of the Catholic church • E.) Describe the Counter reformation at the Council of Trent and the role of the Jesuits. • While protestant Churches won many followers, millions remained true to Catholicism . This movement is now know as the Catholic reformation. In 1540, the pope created a religious order for his followers called the society of Jesus. Members were called Jesuits. The Jesuits focused on three activities. • F.) Describe the English reformation and the role of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. • When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509, he was a debut Catholic. He needed a male heir. Henry’s father had become king long after a civil war. Henry feared that a similar war could start, if he died without a son as his heir. He and his wife Catherine of Aragon had one living daughter Mary- but no woman could successfully rule the English throne.

  27. SSWH # 10 • The student will analyze the impact of the age of discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

  28. # 10 • A.) Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors: include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain. • Zheng He was a Chinese Muslim admiral who led all of the 7 voyages. Vasco de Gama, a Portuguese explorer began exploring the coast of Africa. Christopher Columbus, convinced Spain to finance a bold plan. Ferdinand Magellan led the boldest exploration yet. • B.) Define the Colombian Exchange and its global economic and cultural impact. • The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas is known as the Colombian exchange. These foods helped people live longer. This played a significant role in boosting the world’s population. • C.) Explain the role of improved technology in European exploration. • The desire for new sources of wealth was the main reason for European exploration. Though overseas exploration merchants and traders hoped ultimately to benefit from what had become a profitable business.

  29. SSWH# 11 • Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE.

  30. # 11 • A.) Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rulers: include Oda Nobunaga and Kangxi. ‘ • In 1644, the Manchus, the people of that region invaded China and the Ming Dynasty collapsed. The first Kangxi, became the emperor in 1661 and ruled for some 60 years. One of the brutal and ambitious leaders, Oda Nobunaga, defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1566. • B.) Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure. • Suleyman had broad interest which contributed to the cultural achievements of the empire. He found time to study poetry, history, geography, astronomy, mathematics, and architecture.

  31. SSWH #12 • The student will examine the origins and contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires.

  32. # 12 • A.) Describe the geographical extent of the Ottoman Empire during the rule of Suleyman the Magnificent, the Safavid Empire during the reigns of Babur and Akbar. • The most successful ghazi was Osman. People in the West called him Othman and named his followers Ottomans. Suleyman came to throne in 1520 and ruled for 46 years. His own people called him Suleyman the Lawgiver. He was known in the west as Suleyman the Magnificent. Despite his social and cultural achievements , the ottoman Empire was losing ground. • B.) Explain the ways in which these Muslim empires influenced religion, law, and the arts in their parts of the world. • Cultural change is most often prompted by one or more of the following activities: migration, pursuit of religious freedom, conversion, and trade. These changes often reflected unique aspects of several cultures for example, religious and ethnic systems.

  33. SSWH # 13 • The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view.

  34. # 13 • A.) Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view. • Copernicus was the first astronomer to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Galileo was an Italianphysicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific revolution. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century revolution. • B.) Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau and their relationship to politics and society. • The philosopher John Locke, held a different more positive view of human nature. Using the pen name, Voltaire, he published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama. A third great philosopher, Jean Jacques Rousseau was passionately committed to individual freedom.

  35. SSWH # 14 • The student will analyze the Age of revolutions and Rebellions.

  36. # 14 • A.) Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter The Great, and Tokugwaga Leyasu. • Louis the XIV became king in 1643, after his father, Louis XIII died. He reportedly boasted” I am the State”. Peter the Great , in 1696 became solo ruler of Russia. He was one of the Russia’s greatest reformers. Tokugawa Leyasu completed the unification of Japan. • B.) Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England, United States, France, Haiti, and Latin America. • The early French explorers sailed west with dreams of reaching the East Indies. Ten years later, the Frenchmen Jacques Cartier reached a gulf off the eastern coast of Canada. He named it St. Lawrence. The explorations of the Spanish and French inspired the English. In 1606, a company of London investors received from King James a charter to found a colony in North America. • C.) Explain Napoleon's rise to power, and his defeat. • He was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. When he was 9 years old, his parents sent him to a military school. In 1785, at the age 16, he finished school and became a lieutenant in the artillery. When the Revolution broke out, Napoleon joined the army of the new government.

  37. # 14 • D.) Examine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners. • The Japanese first turned their sights to their neighbor, Korea. In 1876, Japan forced Korea to open three ports to Japanese trade. But China also considered Korea to be important both as a trading partner and a military outpost. Recognizing their similar interests in Korea , Japan, and China signed a hands-off agreement.

  38. SSWH # 15 • The student will be able to describe the impact of industrialization, the rise of nationalism, and the major characteristics of worldwide imperialism.

  39. # 15 • A.) Analyze the process and impact of industrialization in England, Germany, and Japan. • The economic developments that gave Japan courage to take on the United States in World War II began as early as 1858. From there, Japan had established an infrastructure that would take them on a quest of world domination. The Meiji regime gave rise to the fact that Japan was serious, and nobody was going to stop them. But, eventually this dream of world domination would come to an end, as they were finally tested in the battle of World War II. • B.) Compare and contrast the rise of the nation state in Germany under Otto von Bismarck and Japan under Emperor Meiji. • The Japanese were angry that the shogun had given in to the foreigners’ demands. They turned to Japans’ young emperor. Mutshuhito, who seemed to symbolize the county’s sense of pride, • C.) Describe the reaction to foreign domination. • When colonial rule ended in Latin America in the early 1800s, new nations were no longer restricted to trading with colonial powers.

  40. # 15 • D.) Describe imperialism in Africa and Asia by comparing British policies in South Africa, French Policies in Indochina, and Japanese policies in Asia. • Imperialism is found in the ancient histories of the Assyrian Empire, Chinese Empire, Roman Empire, Greece, the Persian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire (see Ottoman wars in Europe), ancient Egypt, India, the Aztec empire, and a basic component to the conquests of Genghis Khan and other warlords. Although imperialist practices have existed for thousands of years, the term "Age of Imperialism" generally refers to the activities of nations such as Britain, Japan, and Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, e.g. the "Scramble for Africa" and the "Open Door Policy" in China.

  41. SSWH #16 • The student will demonstrate an understanding of long-term causes of World War I and its global impact.

  42. # 16 • A.) Identify the causes of the war. • War arises because of the changing relations of numerous variables--technological, psychic, social, and intellectual. There is no single cause of war. Peace is an equilibrium among many forces. Change in any particular force, trend, movement, or policy may at one time make for war, but under other conditions a similar change may make for peace. A state may at one time promote peace by armament, at another time by disarmament, at one time by insistence on its rights, at another time by a spirit conciliation. • B.) Describe conditions on the war front for soldiers. • The war front for soldiers is really painful .They have to stand their not knowing if they will get shot or not. Fearing getting bombed. The nurses have to be available at all times. • C.) Explain the major decisions made in the Versailles. • By 1918 Germany was being defeated in most areas of the war. German people were hungry, war weary and demanded peace. The German government eventually asked for an armistice, and at the eleventh day of the eleventh month, 1918, cease-fire began. • The problem of peace remained. Many people hoped that a peace settlement would prevent war from happening again, President Woodrow Wilson thought that he had the answer to all Europe’s problems. He stated his views in ‘Fourteen Points’

  43. # 16 • D.) Analyze the destabilization of Europe in the collapse of the great empires. • On November 5, 1937, Hitler announced to his advisers his plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich or German Empire. The Treaty of Versailles prohibited Anschluss, or a union between Austria and Germany. However, many Austrians supported unity with Germany. In March 1938, Hitler sent his army into Austria and annexed it. France and Britain ignored their pledge to protect Austrian independence.

  44. SSWH #17 • The student will be able to identify the major political and economic factors that shaped world societies between World War I and World War II.

  45. # 17 • A.) Examine the impact of the war on science, art , and social thinking by identifying the cultural significance of Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein, and Picasso. • No scientific idea of modern timesaroused more controversy than the work English naturalist Charles Darwin. In earlier periods, art, music, and theater were enjoyed by the wealthy. This group had the money, leisure time, and education to appreciate high culture. It was not until about 1900 that people could speak of mass culture, the appeal of art, writing, music, and other forms of entertainment to a larger audience. • B.) Determine the causes and results of the Russian Revolution from the rise of the Bolsheviks under Lenin to Stalin's first five year Plan. • Lenin and the Bolsheviks soon gained control of the Petrograd soviet, as well as the soviets in other major Russian cities. By the fall of 1917, people in the cities were rallying to the call, “ All power to the soviets.” Lenin’s slogan-” Peace, Land, and Bread”-gained widespread appeal. Lenin decided to take action. • C.) Describe the rise of fascism in Europe and Asia by comparing the policies of Benito Mussolini in Italy, Adolf Hitler in Germany, and Hirohito in Japan. • To growing numbers of Italians, their democratic government seemed helpless to deal with the country’s problems. They wanted a leader who would take action. A newspaper editor and politician named Benito Mussolini boldly promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces.

  46. # 17 • D.) Analyze the rise of nationalism as seen in the ideas of Sun Yat Sen, Mustafa Kemal Attaturk, and Mohandas Ghandi. • At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire was forced to give up all its territories except Turkey. Turkish lands included the old Turkish homeland of Anatolia and a small strip of land around Istanbul. In 1919, Greek soldiers invaded Turkey and threatened to conquer it. The Turkish sultan was powerless to stop the Greeks. However, in 1922, a brilliant commander , Mustafa Kemal, successfully led Turkish nationalists in fighting back the Greeks and their British backers. • E.) Describe the nature of tolitarianism. • The term totalitarianism describes a government that takes total, centralized, state control over every aspect of public and private life. Totalitarian leaders appear to provide a sense of security and to give a direction for the future. In the 20th century, the widespread use of mass communication made it possible to reach into all aspects of citizens’ lives. • F.) Explain the aggression and conflict leading to World war II in Europe and Asia. • Instead of taking a stand against Fascist aggression in the late 1930s Britain and France repeatedly made concessions, hoping to keep peace. Both nations were dealing with serious economic problems as a result of the Great Depression. In addition, the horrors of World War I had created a deep desire to avoid war.

  47. SSWH # 18 • The student will demonstrate an understanding of the global political, economic, and social impact of World War II.

  48. # 18 • A.) Describe the major conflicts and outcomes. • After signing this nonaggression pact, Hitler quickly moved ahead with plans to conquer Poland. His surprise attack took place at dawn on September 1, 1939. On September 17, Stalin sent Soviet troops to occupy the eastern half of Poland. Stalin then moved to annex countries to the north of Poland. • B.) Identify Nazi ideology, policies, and consequences that led to the Holocaust. • Early in November 1938, 17-year-old Herschel Grynszpan, a Jewish youth from Germany, was visiting his Uncle in Paris. While there, he received a postcard. It said that after living in Germany for 27 years, his father had been deported to Poland . On November 7, wishing to avenge his father’s deportation, he shot a German diplomat living in Paris. When Nazi leaders heard the news, they launched a violent attack on the Jewish community. On November 9, Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, killing over 100 Jews. • C.) Explain the military and diplomatic negotiations between the leaders of Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. • Churchill wanted Britain and the United States to strike first at North Africa and southern Europe. The strategy angered Stalin. He wanted the Allies to open the second front in France.. The Soviet Union, therefore, had to hold out on its own against the Germans. All Britain and the United States could offer in the way of help was supplies.

  49. # 18 • D.) Explain allied Post-World War II policies. • Wherever Allied forces fought, people on the home fronts rallied to support them. In war-torn countries like the Soviet Union and Great Britain, civilians endured extreme hardships. Many lost their lives. Except for a few of its territories, such as Hawaii, the United States did not suffer invasion or bombing.

  50. SSWH # 19 • The student will demonstrate an understanding of the global, social, economic, and political impact of the Cold War and decolonization from 1945 to 1989.