The Turbulent ‘60s Civil Rights & the End of Segregation
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • “Separate but equal” does not violate the 14th Amendment
“Jim Crow” Laws • Laws passed between 1876 & 1965 that mandated de jure segretation • What is de jure segregation? • Where did the name come • from? The name Jim Crow comes from a minstrel show in the ante bellum period. The show involved a white man in black face dancing around and using exaggerated movements and voice to poke fun at African Americans. The name Jim Crow became synonymous with Arican American.
“Jim Crow” Laws • A black male could not offer his hand to a white male, because this implied social equality. • Blacks were to be introduced to whites – never whites introduced to blacks. • White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections. • If blacks and whites were eating together, the whites would be served first and there would be a partition splitting them.
Thurgood Marshall & the NAACP • Morgan v. Virginia • Segregated seating on buses in unconstitutional • Sweatt v. Painter • State law schools must admit blacks applicants, even if a separate black school exists
Thurgood Marshall & the NAACP • Who was the judge that ruled in favor of Brown? Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Opposition to Brown v. Board • Arkansas governor orders National Guard to turn away the “Arkansas Nine” • Leads to Eisenhower ordering U.S. paratroopers to enforce desegregation in Little Rock
Opposition to Brown v. Board • Alabama Governor George Wallace: “In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny, and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever!”
Montgomery Bus Boycott1955 • Following Rosa Park’s arrest, African Americans in Montgomery boycott the bus system. • Their boycott last 381 days and made a powerful point.
Soul Force March on Birmingham – King is arrested, writes “Letter from Birmingham Jail” urging African Americans not to wait but to act now March on Washington – Estimated 300,000 participants King gives “I Have a Dream…” speech Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Fighting for… Desegregation Right to vote without being harassed Labor rights
March on BirminghamApril-May 1963 • King & the SCLC organize a march on the “most segregated city in America” • King is arrested, writes “Letter from a Birmingham Jail urging African Americans not to wait but to act now • Leads Kennedy to begin supporting Civil Rights
March on Washington • Leads to President Johnson passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Prohibited discrimination because ofrace, gender, origin, or religion
Soul Force Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
Greensboro Sit-In February 1960 • African American students from NC A&T refuse to leave store counter after being turned away. • Movement grows until over 300 students come to sit at the lunch counter. • Instrumental in the desegregation of stores and restaurants.
Freedom Summer1964 Members of the Congress of Racial Equality & SNCC trained in nonviolent resistance go to MS to help register voters. Activists are brutalized, including murders by KKK & police
Race Riots • 1963 – 1968 African Americans revolt in many of the large cities in the U.S. • Opposite of Dr. King’s message of peaceful protest
Malcolm Little Aka… MALCOLM X
Malcolm X Upbringing: Early Beliefs: Later Beliefs:
Black Power • Term popularized by Stokely Carmichael • Who was Stokely Carmichael? • First used after James Meredith is shot during his “Walk Against Fear” • Used a sign of solidarity in the black community Was MLK a fan?
The Black Panther Partyfor Self Defense1966 • Aimed to fight police brutality in the ghetto • Militant, socialist organization • Positive contributions to black America are overshadowed by their violent, anti-police tactics Huey Newton
April 4, 1968 While standing on his hotel balcony in Memphis, Martin Luther King is shot by James Earl Ray. Robert Kennedy was one of the first to announce his murder.