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Stem Cells PowerPoint Presentation

Stem Cells

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Stem Cells

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  1. Stem Cells Biology

  2. What is a Stem Cell? • A stem cell is a cell whose job in the body is not yet determined. • Every single cell in the body “stems” from this type of cell – hence the name! • Stem cells can become many different types of cells.

  3. Differentiation • Eventually stem cells receive a signal that tells it to turn on certain genes and make new proteins, which will help him look and act like the cell he will become.

  4. Types of Stem Cells • Early embryonic stem cells – originate from embryos which are result from a zygote going through cell division. These cells can become ANY KIND of cell in the body and are called TOTIPOTENT. • Blastocyst embryonic stem cells – seven days after fertilization the embryo forms a hollow ball-like structure called a blastocyst. These cells can become ALMOST ANY type of cell in the body and are called PLURIPOTENT.

  5. Types of Stem Cells - continued • Fetal Stem Cells – Cells derived from a fetus which is an embryo after eight weeks of development. These cells are also PLURIPOTENT. • Umbilical Cord Stem Cells – These cells are genetically identical to the newborn child. However, these cells are MULTIPOTENT, which means they can differentiate into only a LIMITED range of cell types. • Scientists Discover a New Source of Stem Cells

  6. Type of Stems Cells - Continued • Adult Stem Cells – reside in already-developed tissues, directly their growth and maintenance throughout life. These cells are also MULTIPOTENT.

  7. Goal of Stem Cell Therapy • To repair any damaged tissue that can’t heal itself • Stem Cells Offer Hope for Diabetes

  8. Types of Stem Cell Therapy Used Today • Bone Marrow Stem Cells (Adult Stem Cell Transplant) – used to treat leukemia and other cancers as well as various blood disorders. • Peripheral Blood Stem Cells (Adult Stem Cell Transplant) – collected from drawn blood and can be used to treat leukemia, other cancers and various blood disorders BUT peripheral blood stem cells are not abundant so collecting enough to perform a transplant is challenging.

  9. Therapies - continued • Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant – Used for the same purposes as other two; however, these cells have not developed features that can be recognized and attacked by recipient’s immune system. • Stem Cell Projects at Risk

  10. How to Create Stem Cells? • Therapeutic Cloning

  11. Creating Stem Cells • Adult Tissue

  12. Creating Stem Cells • Embryos