Stem Cells Biology
What is a Stem Cell? • A stem cell is a cell whose job in the body is not yet determined. • Every single cell in the body “stems” from this type of cell – hence the name! • Stem cells can become many different types of cells.
Differentiation • Eventually stem cells receive a signal that tells it to turn on certain genes and make new proteins, which will help him look and act like the cell he will become.
Types of Stem Cells • Early embryonic stem cells – originate from embryos which are result from a zygote going through cell division. These cells can become ANY KIND of cell in the body and are called TOTIPOTENT. • Blastocyst embryonic stem cells – seven days after fertilization the embryo forms a hollow ball-like structure called a blastocyst. These cells can become ALMOST ANY type of cell in the body and are called PLURIPOTENT.
Types of Stem Cells - continued • Fetal Stem Cells – Cells derived from a fetus which is an embryo after eight weeks of development. These cells are also PLURIPOTENT. • Umbilical Cord Stem Cells – These cells are genetically identical to the newborn child. However, these cells are MULTIPOTENT, which means they can differentiate into only a LIMITED range of cell types. • Scientists Discover a New Source of Stem Cells
Type of Stems Cells - Continued • Adult Stem Cells – reside in already-developed tissues, directly their growth and maintenance throughout life. These cells are also MULTIPOTENT.
Goal of Stem Cell Therapy • To repair any damaged tissue that can’t heal itself • Stem Cells Offer Hope for Diabetes
Types of Stem Cell Therapy Used Today • Bone Marrow Stem Cells (Adult Stem Cell Transplant) – used to treat leukemia and other cancers as well as various blood disorders. • Peripheral Blood Stem Cells (Adult Stem Cell Transplant) – collected from drawn blood and can be used to treat leukemia, other cancers and various blood disorders BUT peripheral blood stem cells are not abundant so collecting enough to perform a transplant is challenging.
Therapies - continued • Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant – Used for the same purposes as other two; however, these cells have not developed features that can be recognized and attacked by recipient’s immune system. • Stem Cell Projects at Risk
How to Create Stem Cells? • Therapeutic Cloning
Creating Stem Cells • Adult Tissue
Creating Stem Cells • Embryos