FCAT 2.0 LIFE SCIENCE REVIEW Mrs. Bloch Coral Gables Preparatory Academy
Big Idea 14: Organization and Development of Living Organisms SC.6.L.14.1 Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms. SC.6.L.14.2Investigate and explain the components of the scientific theory of cells (cell theory): all organisms are composed of cells (single-celled or multi-cellular), all cells come from pre-existing cells, and cells are the basic unit of life. SC.6.L.14.3 Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing. SC.6.L.14.4Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles. SC.6.L.14.5 Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis. SC.6.L.14.6 Compare and contrast types of infectious agents that may infect the human body, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
SC.6.L.14.1 Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms.
What are the Levels of Organization in an Organism?Pg. 363 Organisms, or living things, are made of tiny particles that can join together, making larger structures. The levels of organization in an organism are: Smallestatoms elements molecules compounds cells Tissues Organs Largestorgan systems
SC.6.L.14.2 Investigate and explain the components of the scientific theory of cells (cell theory): all organisms are composed of cells (single-celled or multi-cellular), all cells come from pre-existing cells, and cells are the basic unit of life.
What are Cells? Pg. 368 Mushroom, tree, spider, and bird= Living organisms Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. Cells--- form the parts of an organism ---- carry out functions. Organism= are made of one or more cells Cells carry out basic functions that let it: Live Grow Reproduce Cell functions can include: obtaining food, water, and oxygen, getting rid of waste, and reproducing by division.
What is The Cell Theory? Pg. 371 The cell theory explains the relationship between cells and living things. The cell theory was developed about two hundred years after the invention of the microscope, an instrument that makes small objects look larger, and the discovery of cells. The cell theory states the following: All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure & function in living things. All cells are produced from other cells.
How Does Your Body Stays in Balance? Pg.419 SC.6.L.14.3 Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing. Although conditions outside the human body may change, conditions inside the body stay stable. conditions such as: chemical makeup of the cells their water content body temperature. The condition in which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the outside environment is called homeostasis. Homeostasis is necessary for an organism’s proper functioning and survival.
How Does Your Body Stays in Balance? Pg. 420 All of your body systems working together maintain homeostasis and keep the body in balance. Body reactions that maintain homeostasis in the face of changes in external conditions include: shivering being thirsty. sweating being hungry The nervous and endocrine systems respond to a change in the body’s internal environment and control the responses. They also signal other body systems to play a role in the response. Homeostasis is NEVER the responsibility of only one system; it relies on the interaction of many body systems.
SC.6.L.14.4 Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles. PLANT CELLS VS. ANIMAL CELLS DIFFERENCES BETWEEEN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS 1. PLANTS HAVE A RIGID CELL WALL 2. PLANTS HAVE CHLOROPLASTS 3. PLANTS HAVE A CENTRAL VACUOLE 4. PLANT CELLS HAVE A BOXY SHAPE 5. ANIMAL CELLS HAVE A ROUND SHAPE
How Do the Parts of a Cell Work? • Cells contain a number of smaller structures that divide up the jobs inside the cell. • Each kind of cell structure has a different function within a cell. • Cell Wall rigid layer that surrounds the cells of plants and other organisms (mushrooms)= protects and support the cell • Cell wall made of CELLULOSE • Materials that pass through the cell wall= water & oxygen • Animal Cells= no cell wall
How Do the Parts of a Cell Work? • Every cell is surrounded by a cell membrane, which controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell. (kind of a screen) • Example of things that pass through the membrane: • Food particles • Water • Oxygen
How Do the Parts of a Cell Work? Organelles: cell structures that are specialized and carry out specific jobs inside the cell. (they are suspended in the cell’s gel-like fluid.) *nucleusdirects the cell’s activities (functions similar as a brain, but is not a brain) (largest organelle) nuclear envelope= surrounds the nucleus Chromatin- within the nucleus, strand of DNA & Protein-has the information (411) for directing the cell’s functions. Nucleolus- round structure in the nucleus, where ribosomes are made. Ribosomes- small, grain shaped organelles that produce protein
Organelles in the Cytoplasm pg 383 *cytoplasm: gel-like fluid found inside the cell (cell membrane and nucleus) *mitochondriaconvert the energy stored in food to energy the cell can use (rod-like structures) ribosomes produce proteins endoplasmic recticulumand Golgi apparatus modify proteins & move them around in the cell. *Vacuolesare structures where the cell can store water, food, or wastes. lysosomes break down food into smaller particles *Chloroplasts-green plant cell that carries out photosynthesis.
How Do the Parts of a Cell Work? Plant cells have two structures that are not found in animal cells: 1.) the cell wall-- surrounds the cell and helps support it 2.) Chloroplasts, captures the energy in sunlight to power the process the plant uses to make its own food.
SC.6.L.14.5 Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis.
SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEM • Muscles and bones work together to make your body move. The nervous system tells your muscles when to act. • The skeletal system, or skeleton, includes all the bones in the body. • The muscular system is made up of ALL the muscles in the body.
Which Systems Move Materials Within the Body? The respiratory, digestive, circulatory, and excretory systems play key roles in moving materials within your body. The circulatory system—heart, blood vessels, and blood—brings essential materials to all cells of the body and carries away cell wastes. For example brings= oxygen/ water carries away= the waste carbon dioxide /excess water
Which Systems Move Materials Within the Body? The respiratory system oxygen into the body carbon dioxide. Air that is inhaled lungs (organ of the respiratory system) where oxygen from the air moves into the bloodstream. The circulatory system delivers oxygen to all body cells and carries back carbon dioxide to the lungs, where it is eliminated when air is exhaled. Oxygen is needed by the cells to release energy from sugar molecules. Breathing In, Breathing Out You breathe in and out more than 20,000 times in one day.
Which Systems Move Materials Within the Body? Pg. 415 • The digestive system breaks down foods into nutrients, substances that the body needs to carry out its functions, which then move into the bloodstream through absorption. The circulatory system delivers these nutrients to all body cells. Getting Food The digestive system breaks down foods into sugars and nutrients that the body can use. It works with the circulatory system to get food to the cells.
Which Systems Controls Body Functions? The nervous system (NS) and the endocrine system (ES) work together to control body functions. Information gathered by the senses (in the form of a stimulus) travels through nerves to the brain or spinal cord and produces a response, often involving other body systems. Glands of the ES produce hormones, chemicals released directly into the bloodstream and transported throughout the body. Hormones affect many body processes. i.e. exercising glands send message ES ES signals to make you sweat= sweat to cool down your body.
System Interactions pg. 417 • Endocrine System • The chemical signals released by the endocrine system are called hormones. • Hormones are transported = Circulatory System • Hormones affect your body process(how it functions). It also affect your reproductive system (male & female) • For example: • how much water in bloodstream • amount of sugar in the bloodstream
What Are the Characteristics of All Living Things? Pg. 581 • All organisms/living things, share 6 important characteristics. All living things have: • cellular organization • contain similar chemicals • use energy • respond to their surroundings • grow and develop • reproduce.
What Are the Characteristics of All Living Things? Pg. 582 All organisms are made up of cells. A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in an organism. Single-celled organisms, like bacteria, are unicellular organisms. Organisms composed of many cells are multicellular. The chemicals in cells include: water, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nucleic acids are the genetic material of cells. The combination of reactions that break down and build up materials to provide a cell with energy is metabolism.
The Naming System of Linnaeus pg. 592 The system scientists use to classify organisms was developed by Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus and is called binomial nomenclature . In binomial nomenclature each organism has a unique two-part scientific name. e.i.Felisconcolor= puma The first word is the genus, a classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms. (share same characteristics) e.i.Felis= sharp, retractable claws, hunt other animals The second word is the species name. This often describes where an organism lives or its appearance A Species is a group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce.
What Are the Levels of Classification pg. 594 The classification system has eight levels. A domain is the highest level of organization. kingdoms phyla classes orders families genera species *Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools The more classification levels two organisms share, the more characteristics they have in common and the more closely related they are.
Classifying Life Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Levels of Classification As you move down these levels of classification, the number of organisms decreases. The organisms that remain share more characteristics with one another and are more related. Phylum Chordata Class Aves Order Strigiformes Family Strigidae Genus Bubo Species Bubo virginianus
Identifying Organisms The six paired statements in this taxonomic key describe physical characteristics of different organisms. Classifying Life
How Are Organisms Classified Into Domains and Kingdoms? Pg. 598 1869 scientist classified organisms as animals and plants Thanks to the invention of the microscopes, this has helped scientists discover tiny new organisms and identify differences among cells. The modern classification system is made up of three domains. Domain Bacteria, Domain Achaea, & Domain Eukarya Within the domains are kingdoms. Organisms are placed into domains and kingdoms based on: their cell type, their ability to make food the number of cells in their bodies.
Domain Bacteria pg. 599 Bacteria are all around you Some are autotrophs, while others are heterotrophs. Members of domain Bacteria are prokaryotes (organisms) whose cells lack a nucleus. A nucleus is a dense area in a cell that contains nucleic acids, (DNA=Deoxyribonucleic acid) whichare the chemicals that direct all of the cell’s activities. In prokaryotes, nucleic acids are not contained within a nucleus. Prokaryotes = No Nucleus
Domain Archae pg. 599 Like bacteria, members of domain Archaeaare also unicellular prokaryotes They can be autotrophs or heterotrophs. Archaea are classified in their own domain because their chemical makeup differs from that of bacteria. Bacteria and archaeaalso differ in the structureand chemical makeup of their cells. Archaeacan be found in extreme environments e.i. Deep oceans, hot springs, marshlands (plankton)
Domain Eukarya pg. 600 unicellular multicellular Domain Eukarya consists: Eukaryotes organisms with cells that contain nuclei. Domain Eukarya is divided into four kingdoms: protists fungi Plants animals
The Protist Kingdom is sometimes called the “odds and ends” kingdom. It includes: -any eukaryote that cannot be classified as an animal, plant, or fungus. -Some are autotrophs and some can be heterotrophs -Most are unicellular (but some can be multicellular=seaweeds) Fungi Kingdom: Mushrooms, molds, and mildew are all members of the fungi kingdom. Most fungi feed by absorbing nutrients from dead or decaying organisms. Marine Dinoflagettates AspergillusFumigatus
THE PLANT KINGDOM Includes a great variety of organisms, from giant Redwood trees to mosses. All plants are autotrophs that make their own food. THE ANIMAL KINGDOM All animals are all heterotrophs. Multicellular eukaryotes Animals have different adaptations that allow them to locate food, capture it, eat it, and digest it. Live in diverse environments/locations
Big Idea 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms SC.7.L.15.1Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species. SC.7.L.15.2 Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms. SC.7.L.15.3 Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species to adapt within a changing environment may contribute to the extinction of that species. Big Idea 16: Heredity and Reproduction SC.7.L.16.1 Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell, and that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another. SC.7.L.16.2 Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares and pedigrees. SC.7.L.16.3 Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis. SC.7.L.16.4 Recognize and explore the impact of biotechnology (cloning, genetic engineering, artificial selection) on the individual, society and the environment.
Big Idea 17: Interdependence SC.7.L.17.1 Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web. SC.7.L.17.2 Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism. SC.7.L.17.3 Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites. Big Idea 18: Matter and Energy Transformations SC.8.L.18.1 Describe and investigate the process of photosynthesis, such as the roles of light, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll; production of food; release of oxygen. SC.8.L.18.2 Describe and investigate how cellular respiration breaks down food to provide energy and releases carbon dioxide. SC.8.L.18.3 Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and their physical environment. SC.8.L.18.4 Cite evidence that living systems follow the Laws of Conservation of Mass and Energy.
What is Evolution? Pg. 379 The diversity of life today and in the past can be explained by Evolution. Evolution is change over time. Over millions of years, evolution has resulted in organisms no longer living as well as the ones alive today. By understanding evolution, we can begin to understand the history of life on Earth. • Big Idea 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms • SC.7.L.15.1 Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species. The scientific theory of evolution explains how living things descended from earlier organisms.
What Evidence Supports Evolution? SC.7.L.15.2Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms. • How do scientists know that organisms change over time? They rely on four types of evidence that support the theory of evolution. Fossils, similarities in DNA and protein structures, similar body structures, and patterns of early development all provide evidence that organisms have changed over time. • FOSSILS • SIMILARITIES IN DNA AND PROTEIN STRUCTURES • SIMILAR BODY STRUCTURES • PATTERNS OF EARLY DEVELOPMENT
FOSSILS pg. 380 • By examining fossils, scientists can infer the structures of ancient organisms. The fossil record provides clues about how and when new species evolved and how organisms are related. • How do these jawbones look similar? • How do they help to confirm the theory of evolution?
Similarities in DNA and Protein Structures pg. 381 Why do some species have similar body structures or similar patterns of development? Scientists infer that species inherited many of the same genes from a common ancestor. Genes are DNA sequences that determine an organism’s characteristics. The DNA bases along a gene specify what type of protein will be produced. Therefore, scientists can also compare the order of amino acids in a protein to see how closely related two species are. Evidence from DNA and protein structure has confirmed conclusions about evolutionary relationships among organisms based on fossils, embryos, and body structure.
Similarities in Body Structure pg. 382 • An organism’s body structure is its basic body plan, which, in vertebrates, includes how its bones are arranged. • Fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all have an internal skeleton with a backbone. • This similarity provides evidence that these animal groups evolved from a common ancestor. • Homologous Structures are similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor.
Similarities in Early Development pg. 383 Scientists also infer evolutionary relationships by comparing the early development of different organisms. Similarities can further suggest that species are related to a common ancestor. A look at the organisms show that: 1.They look similar in early stages Of development. 2.All the organisms have a tail. 3.They also have a row of tiny slits Along their throats. The similarities suggest that these Vertebrate species are related and Share a common ancestor.
Diversity and Fossils Pg. 385 In 1831, The British ship HMS Beagle set sail from England on a five year trip around the world. Charles Darwin was on board. Darwin was a naturalist--- a person who observes and studies the natural world. During his five-year voyage around the world, Charles Darwin observed great diversity among living things, often within the same species. Darwin also observed fossils that shared some, but not all, traits with living animals. A trait is a specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its offspring. Darwin also observed differences in plants and animals that lived in South America and the Galápagos Islands, which are off the coast of South America. He attributed these differences to examples of adaptations - a trait that increases an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.
Darwin’s Hypothesis pg. 388 • Darwin thought about what he had seen during his voyage on the Beagle. By this time, Darwin was convinced that organisms change over time. He wanted to know how organisms change. Over the next 20 years he consulted with other scientists and gathered more information. Based on his observations, Darwin reasoned that plants or animals that arrived on the Galapagos Islands faces conditions that were different from those on the nearby mainland. • The iguanas on the Galapagos Islands have large claws that allow them to grip slippery rocks so they can feed on seaweed. The Iguanas on the mainland have smaller claws that allow them to climb trees so they can eat leaves.
What Was Darwin’s Hypothesis? Pg. 388 Darwin hypothesized that species gradually change over many generations and become better adapted to new conditions. Because the gradual change in a species over time is called evolution, Darwin’s ideas are often referred to as the theory of evolution. A scientific theory is a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations. .
What is Natural Selection? Pg. 390 In 1858, Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace proposed the same explanation— natural selection —for how evolution occurs. Natural selection is the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce more than other members of the same species. Darwin proposed that, over a long time, natural selection can lead to change. Helpful variations may gradually accumulate in a species, while unfavorable ones may disappear. Without variations, all the members of a species would have the same traits and equal chances of surviving and reproducing.
Overproduction pg. 390 Darwin knew that most species produce far more offspring than can possibly survive. In many species, so many offspring are produced that there are not enough resources – food, water, and living space – for all of them. Variation pg. 391 Members of a species differ from one another in many of their traits. Variation is any difference between Individuals of the same species. For Example, sea turtles may differ in color, size, the ability to swim quickly, and shell hardness.
Competition pg. 391 Since food, space, and other resources are limited, the members of a species must compete with one another to survive. Competition doesn’t always involve physical fights between members of a species. Instead, competition is usually indirect. For example, some turtles may not find enough to eat. A slower turtle may be caught by a predator, while a faster turtle may escape. Only a few turtles will survive to reproduce. Selection pg. 391 Darwin observed that some variations make individuals better adapted to their environment. Those individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce Their offspring may inherit the helpful characteristic. The offspring, in turn, will be more likely to survive and reproduce, and pass the characteristic to their offspring. After many generations, more members of the species will have the helpful characteristic