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TOXICOLOGY

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TOXICOLOGY

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  1. TOXICOLOGY DRUGS

  2. DRUGS • NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC SUBSTANCES • USED TO PRODUCE PSYCHOLOGICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

  3. Psychological dependence

  4. Psychological Dependence Drug is used to fulfill EMOTIONAL needs • Cope with life • To feel more comfortable in social settings CRACK is the most PSYCHOLOGICALLY addictive

  5. Physical Dependence

  6. Physical Dependence • Physical dependence means the body gets used to the drug, it needs more and more of it to accomplish the same effect. • Finally, the drug is merely used to counteract the withdrawal symptoms that appear when no drugs are being taken. Perspiring, feeling cold, goose flesh/pimples (cold turkey), running nose, stomach cramps, aching muscles, diarrhea.

  7. DRUGS • NECESSARY TO SUSTAIN AND PROLONG LIFE EXAMPLES: • INSULIN • AIDS DRUGS

  8. DRUGS • AS AN ESCAPE

  9. DRUGS AS A WAY TO END LIFE LEGAL EUTHANASIA: IN US - OREGON NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM SWITZERLAND

  10. Narcotics Substances that reduce or relieve pain and induce sleep

  11. Heroin Derived from morphine which is obtained from the opium poppy

  12. Street Names: “dope” “smack” “China white” “Cheese” “Black Tar”

  13. How used: • Mainlining: injecting into a vein or muscle • Smoked (mixed with marijuana in a joint) • Snorted as a powder

  14. Short-term Effects SLOWS DOWN

  15. Euphoria

  16. Clouds Mental Function

  17. Long-Term Effects Most physically Addictive drug

  18. Chronic use Heart Infections liver disease Heroin tolerance

  19. CODEINE • Prepared synthetically from MORPHINE • 1/6 as strong as morphine

  20. Methadone synthetic opiate Used to treat heroin addiction

  21. Propoxyphene (Darvon) Pain Reliever 1 of top 10 drugs found in bodies at autopsy

  22. Oxycontin • acetaminophen (tylenol) • and oxycodone • used to treat severe pain • tablets crushed & ingested • or dissolved in water and • injected

  23. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF OXYCONTIN • “RUSH” SIMILAR TO HEROIN • RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION • CONSTIPATION, NAUSEA, VOMITING • CARDIAC ARREST • SEVERE WITHDRAWAL (“FLU x 1000”- 2WKS)

  24. Depressants

  25. Barbiturates Relax and produce sleep

  26. “Barbs” “Yellow Jackets”“Blue Devils” “Reds” Fast-acting barbiturates are the most commonly abused : Secobarbital, Pentobarbital, Amobarbital

  27. 1/3 of all Drug-related deaths

  28. Short-term Effects • Relaxes • Impairment of higher thinking • Induces sleep

  29. Long-term Effects of Barbiturates Withdrawal: • Insomnia • Muscle spasms • Delirium • Convulsions • Can lead to death

  30. Methaqualone • Quaaludes “Ludes” • Non-barbiturate depressant • Powerful sedative & muscle relaxant

  31. Tranquilizers • Depressants that relax • Proper dosage does not impair

  32. Ketamine • Veterinarian anesthesia • “Special K” “Vitamin K” new ecstasy

  33. Ketamine Mixed in drinks As a powder–snorted Hallucinogenatory effects: -Euphoria -Delirium -Amnesia -High blood pressure Higher doses can stop breathing-DEATH

  34. “K-HOLE” • NO PAIN • HALLUCINOGEN • COMA

  35. GHB “Liquid X” “Liquid E” “G”

  36. GHB IS MADE OF: A CNS DEPRESSANT

  37. GHB: DATE-RAPE DRUG • COLORLESS • ODORLESS • SLIGHT, BITTER TASTE • DISSOLVES IN WATER

  38. GHB: Short-term Effects • Drowsiness • Vomiting • Delusions • Depression • Amnesia • Coma • Death Increasing dosages

  39. GHB: Long-term Effects • Physically addictive • unknown

  40. “Roofies” Tasteless Odorless Dissolves in water Used crushed Also Legal in 60 countries ….not in U.S.

  41. Rohypnol: Short-term Effects Sedative Hypnotic effect Muscle relaxant Amnesia At higher dosages: respiratory depression With alcohol: no memory COMA

  42. HUFFING: INHALANT ABUSE • RAG IS SOAKED IN INHALANT AND PLACED IN MOUTH. THE INHALANT VAPORIZES AND GOES TO THE LUNGS,THEN TO THE BRAIN • COMMON HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS • ONLY TYPE OF DRUG ABUSE MORE COMMON IN YOUNGER CHILDREN THAN IN TEENS

  43. GLUE-SNIFFING USUALLY TOLUENE SHORT-TERM EFFECTS: Exhilaration, euphoria,slurred Speech, impaired judgement, Double vision LONG-TERM EFFECTS: Liver, heart, brain damage DEATH

  44. LEGALSTIMULANTS SPEEDS UP CNS

  45. AMPHETAMINES • SYNTHETIC STIMULANTS • “UPPERS” • “SPEED”

  46. THE NAZIS USED AMPHETAMINES SO TROOPS WOULD NOT NEED SLEEP WORLD WAR II SOLDIERS USED AMPHETAMINES TO STAY AWAKE

  47. METHAMPHETAMINES “ICE” “CRANK” “METH” “SPEED”

  48. METHAMPHETAMINES • Powerful stimulant • Taken orally, injected, snorted, or smoked • Use is on rise because it is mixed with Ecstacy

  49. Meth: Short-term Effects Increased energy Decrease in appetite Euphoria Irritability Aggression Then EXHAUSTION and DEPRESSION Decrease in Heart and Breathing Rates