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Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development

Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development

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Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development

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  1. Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development Don Hartmann Spring 2007 Lecture 12: Peers II

  2. Supplementary References: Friendship • Bukowski, W.M., & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T.J. Berndt & G.W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 15‑45). New York: Wiley. • Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. G. (1998). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp. 619-700). New York: Wiley. • Terry, R., & Coie, J.D. (1991). A comparison of methods for defining sociometric status among children. Developmental Psychology, 27, 867-880.

  3. Overview of Peer Relations II Lecture • Nature of Peer Groups • Developmental changes in peer relations • Friendships • Value of Friendships • Peer Lab findings (Hartmann et al.) • Cordinates with text, pp. 425-430 & 445-450 • Next: Lect. #13a: Emotions I

  4. Peers!

  5. The Heyday (1970-) • Descriptive studies of various ages and groups: Who does what with whom? • Chums, rejects, crowds, friendships; group structure (e.g., dominance) • Who are the major players: Asher, Berndt, Coie, Dodge, Gottman, Howes • Methods old and new: Sociometric assessments and observations; sequential analysis

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN PEER RELATIONS: The Beginning • Infants touch within the first 3 months of life • Around 6 months of age share toys, food, and the like with peers • By 1.5 years engaging in coordinated play with peers (see example involving Larry and Bernie on p. 441) • By 2 years, complementary roles (e.g., hide-and-seek) • With increasing age, interactions become more verbal and complex. By age 5, pretend play interactions become important

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN PEER RELATIONS: Childhood & adolescence • Elementary school: Interactions become increasingly sophisticated. Some identification with groups, such a Brownies and Cubs (6-10). • Preadolescence (8.5-10): Chumships (Sullivan) • Early Adolescence: Same-sex cliques (Dunphy)

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN PEER RELATIONS: Youth • Mid Adolescence: Heterosexual cliques & crowds (Brown) • Old Adolescence: Dating dyads

  9. What Kind of Peer Relationship was that Again?

  10. Friendships: Introduction • Definition: Reciprocal relationship with positive affect • Distinct from popularity • Importance • Source of social support • Conflict resolution skills • Preparation for adulthood • Can have bad consequences as well: Quality of friendships • Developmental Changes: Increasingly intimate and fewer in number with age

  11. Friendships: Introduction • Definition: Reciprocal relationship with positive affect • Distinct from popularity • Importance • Source of social support • Conflict resolution skills • Preparation for adulthood • Can have bad consequences as well: Quality of friendships

  12. George & Hartmann (1) • Relationship between friendship and popularity (George & Hartmann). 5th- & 6th-grade children administered • a rating scale sociometric‑‑and children were divided, by classrooms, into the bottom .25 (unpopular), middle .50 (average), and top .25 (popular) • Completed a questionnaire asking them to list up to 15 people who they considered to be their good friends

  13. Results of George & Hartmann (2) • Children reported a mean ≈ 12 good friends • 80% of friends within a year of age • Few children had reciprocated cross‑sex friends • 70% in same school % Reciprocation Popularity Group

  14. Results of George & Hartmann (3) Who is chosen as friends? • 12% unpopular; 47% average; 41% popular

  15. Hartmann, Abbott, Pelzel, George, & Ward-Anderson Friendship Stability: Length of Time X Verified Status X Friendship Status % Friends Lost Weeks

  16. Hartmann et al. Why Do Children Loose Friends? • Lack of recent Contact (33%) • Change in Interests (23%) • Negative Personality (21%) • Replaced by Other (21%) • Conflict (13%) • Third Party (10%) • Violation of Trust (10%)

  17. Pelzel, Barrett, & Hartmann Feelings about their most significant friendship loss • What emotions did the loss precipitate? Anger, sadness, & confusion • How strong were the emotions? 2/3 stated experiencing strong negative feeling • How long did the feelings last? More than a month!

  18. Summary of Peer Lab Friendship findings • Children describe having a substantial number of friendships • A substantial minority of which are not in their classroom • almost all of which are same gender • many of which are not reciprocated • Popular children are over-represented on lists of good friends • Friendships are dynamic—many are changing • How dynamic varies depending on how we assess • Friendship loss • Occurs for a variety of reason • And most individuals experience some pain with their most significant friendship loss

  19. Summary of Social Cognition Lecture • Scientific Investigations Of The Peer Group: Heyday (1970‑) • Issues In Peer Relations • Developmental changes in peer relations • Friendships • Next: Lect. #13a: Emotions • Go in Peace