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CSE 3302 Programming Languages

CSE 3302 Programming Languages

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CSE 3302 Programming Languages

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  1. CSE 3302 Programming Languages Semantics Kelly Scott French Spring 2017 Lecture 5 - Semantics, Spring 2017 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  2. Regular Languages • How would you parse nested comments in ‘C’? • http://blog.ostermiller.org/find-comment CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  3. Regular Languagess • Parsing HTML with Regular Expressions • Explanation 1: • http://stackoverflow.com/a/1758162/135078 • Explanation 2 (fun): • http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1732348/regex-match-open-tags-except-xhtml-self-contained-tags • Explanation 3: Regular expression engines sometimes have features that go beyond a regular language. CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  4. Regular Languages • Validation email address with Regular Expresssions (RegExs) • https://fightingforalostcause.net/content/misc/2006/compare-email-regex.php • /^(?!(?:(?:\x22?\x5C[\x00-\x7E]\x22?)|(?:\x22?[^\x5C\x22]\x22?)){255,})(?!(?:(?:\x22?\x5C[\x00-\x7E]\x22?)|(?:\x22?[^\x5C\x22]\x22?)){65,}@)(?:(?:[\x21\x23-\x27\x2A\x2B\x2D\x2F-\x39\x3D\x3F\x5E-\x7E]+)|(?:\x22(?:[\x01-\x08\x0B\x0C\x0E-\x1F\x21\x23-\x5B\x5D-\x7F]|(?:\x5C[\x00-\x7F]))*\x22))(?:\.(?:(?:[\x21\x23-\x27\x2A\x2B\x2D\x2F-\x39\x3D\x3F\x5E-\x7E]+)|(?:\x22(?:[\x01-\x08\x0B\x0C\x0E-\x1F\x21\x23-\x5B\x5D-\x7F]|(?:\x5C[\x00-\x7F]))*\x22)))*@(?:(?:(?!.*[^.]{64,})(?:(?:(?:xn--)?[a-z0-9]+(?:-[a-z0-9]+)*\.){1,126}){1,}(?:(?:[a-z][a-z0-9]*)|(?:(?:xn--)[a-z0-9]+))(?:-[a-z0-9]+)*)|(?:\[(?:(?:IPv6:(?:(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){7})|(?:(?!(?:.*[a-f0-9][:\]]){7,})(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){0,5})?::(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){0,5})?)))|(?:(?:IPv6:(?:(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){5}:)|(?:(?!(?:.*[a-f0-9]:){5,})(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){0,3})?::(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){0,3}:)?)))?(?:(?:25[0-5])|(?:2[0-4][0-9])|(?:1[0-9]{2})|(?:[1-9]?[0-9]))(?:\.(?:(?:25[0-5])|(?:2[0-4][0-9])|(?:1[0-9]{2})|(?:[1-9]?[0-9]))){3}))\]))$/iD CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  5. Names • Names: identify language entities • variables, procedures, functions, constants, data types, … • Attributes: properties of names • Examples of attributes: • Data type: int n = 5; ( data type: integer) int itself is a name • Value: ( value: 5) • Location: int* y; y = new int; • Parameters, return value: int f(int n) {...} • … CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  6. Binding Binding: associating attributes to names declarations assignments declarations (prototype) and definition of a function The bindings can be explicit or implicit e.g. int x; Explicit binding: the data type of x Implicit binding: the location of x (static or dynamic, depending on where the declaration is) Lecture 5 - Semantics, Spring 2017 6 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  7. Binding Time • Binding Time: the time when an attribute is bound to a name. • Static binding (static attribute): occurs before execution • Language definition/implementation time: The range of data type int • translation time (parsing/semantic analysis): The data type of a variable • link time: The body of external function • load time: Location of global variable • Dynamic binding (dynamic attribute): occurs during execution • entry/exit from procedure or program: the value of local variables CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  8. Where can declarations happen? • Blocks ({}, begin-end, … Algol descendants: C/C++, Java, Pascal, Ada, …) e.g., C • Function body • Anywhere a statement can appear (compound statement) • External/global • Structured data type • Class CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  9. Pascal Example – One Pass Program Semantics_One_Pass_Program1; Uses Crt; Procedure DrawLine; {Declaration} Var Counter : Integer; Begin textcolor(green); For Counter := 1 to 10 do Begin Write(chr(196)); {horizontal line} End; End; Begin GotoXy(10,5); DrawLine; {Invocation / Evaluation} Readkey; End. … CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  10. Pascal Example – One Pass Program Semantics_One_Pass_Program1_Error; Uses Crt; Begin GotoXy(10,5); DrawLine; {Invocation} Readkey; End; Procedure DrawLine; {Declaration} Var Counter : Integer; Begin textcolor(green); For Counter := 1 to 10 do Begin Write(chr(196)); {horizontal line} End; End. CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  11. C++ Example const int Maximum = 100; struct FullName {string Lastname, string FirstName}; class Student { private: struct FullName name; int Age; public: void setValue(const int a, struct FullName name); int TStudent(); … }; void Student::setAge(const int a, string lName, string fName) { int i; Age = a; { int j; name.LastName = lName; name.FirstName = fName; } } … CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  12. Scope of Binding • Scope of Binding: the region of the program where the binding is maintained (is valid, applies). • Block-structured language lexical scope (static scope):from the declaration to the end of the block containing the declaration. dynamic scope : introduced later. CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  13. y i x p z q main w Example int x; void p(void) { char y; . . . { int i; . . . } } void q(void) { double z; . . . } main() { int w[10]; . . . } CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  14. Declaration before Use void p(void) { int x; . . . char y; . . . } Exception in OO languages: Scope of local declarations inside a class declaration includes the whole class. public class { public int getValue() { return value; } int value; } x y value CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  15. x (bound with character data type) x (bound with integer data type) Scope Hole • Scope Hole: Declarations in nested blocks take precedence over the previous declarations. That is, binding becomesinvisible/hidden. int x; void p(void) { char x; x = ‘a’; . . . } main() { x = 2; . . . } CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  16. Access Hidden Declarations • scope resolution operator :: (C++) int x; void p(void) { char x; x = ‘a’; ::x=42; . . . } main() { x = 2; . . . } x (bound with character data type) x (bound with integer data type) the hidden integer variable x CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  17. Hide a Declaration • File 1: File 2: extern int x; int x; • File 1: File 2: extern int x; static int x;  CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  18. Symbol Table • Symbol Table: maintain bindings. Can be viewed as functions that map names to their attributes. SymbolTable Names Attributes CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  19. Static vs. Dynamic Scope • Static scope (lexical scope): • scope maintained statically (during compilation) • follow the layout of source codes • used in most languages • Dynamic scope: • scope maintained dynamically (during execution) • follow the execution path • few languages use it (The bindings cannot be determined statically, may depend on user input). • Lisp: considered a bug by its inventor. • Perl: can choose lexical or dynamic scope 19 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  20. Example of Dynamic Scope in Perl http://perldoc.perl.org/perlfaq7.html#What's-the-difference-between-dynamic-and-lexical-(static)-scoping%3f-Between-local()-and-my()%3f sub visible { print "var has value $var\n"; } sub dynamic { local $var= 'local'; # new temporary value for the still-global visible(); # variable called $var } sub lexical { my $var= 'private'; # new private variable, $var visible(); # (invisible outside of sub scope) } $var= 'global'; visible(); # prints global dynamic(); # prints local lexical(); # prints global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  21. Static Scope int x = 1; char y = ‘a’; void p(void) { double x=2.5; printf(“%c\n”,y); } void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } main() { char x = ‘b’; q(); } x y integer, global character, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  22. Static Scope int x = 1; char y = ‘a’; void p(void) { double x=2.5; printf(“%c\n”,y); } void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } main() { char x = ‘b’; q(); } The symbol table in p: the bindings available in p double, local to p x y integer, global Character, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  23. Static Scope int x = 1; char y = ‘a’; void p(void) { double x=2.5; printf(“%c\n”,y); } void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } main() { char x = ‘b’; q(); } The symbol tablein q: the bindings available in q x y integer, global integer, local to q character, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  24. Static Scope int x = 1; char y = ‘a’; void p(void) { double x=2.5; printf(“%c\n”,y); } void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } main() { char x = ‘b’; q(); } The symbol table in main: the bindings available in main character, local to main x y integer, global character, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  25. Static Scope • The symbol table in previous slides are built during compilation • The bindings are used in generating the machine code • Result: 1 a • E.g., semantics of q The symbol tablein q: the bindings available in q x y integer, global void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } integer, local to q character, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  26. Practice for Static Scope Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 int x,y; void g(void) { x = x + 1; y = x + 1; } void f(void) { int x; y = y + 1; x = y + 1; g(); } main() { x = 1; y = 2; f(); g(); printf("x=%d,y=%d\n",x,y); } Question 1: Draw the symbol table at the given points in the program, using static scope? Question 2: What does the program print, using static scope? 26 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  27. What if dynamic scope is used? int x = 1; char y = ‘a’; void p(void) { double x=2.5; printf(“%c\n”,y); } void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } main() { char x = ‘b’; q(); } x y integer, 1, global character, ‘a’, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  28. What if dynamic scope is used? int x = 1; char y = ‘a’; void p(void) { double x=2.5; printf(“%c\n”,y); } void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } main() { char x = ‘b’; q(); } The symbol table in main: the bindings available in main character, ‘b’, local to main x y integer, 1, global character, ‘a’, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  29. What if dynamic scope is used? int x = 1; char y = ‘a’; void p(void) { double x=2.5; printf(“%c\n”,y); } void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } main() { char x = ‘b’; q(); } The symbol tablein q: the bindings available in q character, ‘b’, local to main x y integer, 1, global integer, 42, local to q character, ‘a’, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  30. What if dynamic scope is used? int x = 1; char y = ‘a’; void p(void) { double x=2.5; printf(“%c\n”,y); } void q(void) { int y = 42; printf(“%d\n”,x); p(); } main() { char x = ‘b’; q(); } The symbol table in p: the bindings available in p double, 2.5, local to p character, ‘b’, local to main x y integer, 1, global integer, 42, local to q character, ‘a’, global CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington

  31. Practice for Dynamic Scope Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 int x,y; void g(void) { x = x + 1; y = x + 1; } void f(void) { int x; y = y + 1; x = y + 1; g(); } main() { x = 1; y = 2; f(); g(); printf("x=%d,y=%d\n",x,y); } Question 1: Draw the symbol table at the given points in the program, using dynamic scope? Question 2: What does the program print, using dynamic scope? 31 CSE3302 Programming Languages, UT-Arlington